Monthly Archives: February 2017

Konwencje haskie

Konwencje haskie – zbiorcza nazwa umów międzynarodowych zawieranych w Hadze. Konwencje te dotyczą prawa konfliktów zbrojnych, ochrony dóbr kultury, legalizacji dokumentów itp waterproof smartphone cover.

Rozszerzała zakres konwencji haskich z 1899 roku i ustanawiała nowe przepisy; podczas konferencji przyjęto 13 konwencji (z czego ratyfikowano 12) head shaver, dotyczących m best hydration pack for running women.in.:

Na konferencji tej ustalono reguły wojny powietrznej, wobec braku ratyfikacji zostały normami wewnętrznymi państw uczestniczących.

Dotyczy postępowania wobec dóbr kultury w czasie konfliktu zbrojnego. Ustala m.in. boot socks wholesale, że

Dodatkowo konwencja haska z 1954 roku ustanawia definicję dobra kulturalnego i sposobu jego ochrony. Status obiektu chronionego przez konwencję mają m.in.:

Rejestrację takich obiektów prowadzi UNESCO (Międzynarodowy Rejestr Dóbr Kultury Objętych Ochroną Specjalną). Nieruchomości uznane za zabytkowe są specjalnie oznakowane – tarczą skierowaną ostrzem w dół, przedzieloną po przekątnych na dwa pola białe i dwa pola niebieskie.

Konwencja znosząca wymóg legalizacji zagranicznych dokumentów urzędowych przez placówki dyplomatyczne lub urzędy konsularne.

Konwencja o zwalczaniu bezprawnego zawładnięcia statkami powietrznymi, sporządzona w Hadze. Zgodnie z jej zapisami każda osoba, która na pokładzie statku powietrznego będącego w locie bezprawnie, przemocą lub groźbą użycia przemocy lub w każdej innej formie zastraszenia dokonuje zawładnięcia statkiem powietrznym lub przejęcia nad nim kontroli albo też usiłuje popełnić taki czyn, lub współdziała z osobą, która popełnia lub usiłuje popełnić taki czyn, popełnia przestępstwo podlegające surowej karze.

Fabbroni (månekrater)

Fabbroni er et lille nedslagskrater på Månen. Det befinder sig på Månens forside og er opkaldt efter den italienske kemiker Giovanni V. M. Fabbroni (1752 – 1822).

Navnet blev officielt tildelt af den Internationale Astronomiske Union (IAU) i 1976. ,,

Før det blev omdøbt af IAU meet tenderizer, hed dette krater “Vitruvius E”.

Fabbronikrateret ligger langs den nordlige rand af Mare Tranquillitatis i den østlige side af den åbning, hvor maret slutter sig til Mare Serenitatis mod nord genuine football shirts. Mod sydøst ligger Vitruviuskrateret.

Fabbroni er et cirkulært krater med et konisk indre, fordi de indre kratervægge skråner jævnt ned mod en lille kraterbund i midten. Den nordlige rand af krateret ligger langs den sydøstlige side af bjerget Mons Argaeus.


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(Bemærk, at kraternavne med specialkarakter, herunder mellemrum, kan kræve søgning på de nævnte internetsider)

Sir Harold of Zodanga

Sir Harold of Zodanga is a fantasy novella written by science fiction and fantasy author L. Sprague de Camp as part of the Harold Shea series he originated in collaboration with Fletcher Pratt and later continued with Christopher Stasheff. It was first published in paperback by Baen Books in de Camp and Stasheff’s shared world anthology The Exotic Enchanter (1995). It was later reprinted together with the remainder of the de Camp/Pratt Harold Shea stories in the collection The Mathematics of Magic: The Enchanter Stories of L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt (2007).

The Harold Shea stories are parallel world tales in which universes where magic works coexist with our own, and in which those based on the mythologies, legends, and literary fantasies of our world and can be reached by aligning one’s mind to them by a system of symbolic logic. In “Sir Harold of Zodanga,” in a new wrinkle, Shea visits a parallel Mars rather than a parallel Earth, Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Barsoom.

Dimension hopping Harold Shea, having returned home to his psychological practice, is visited by the malevolent enchanter Malambroso, an enemy of Shea and his partner Reed Chalmers who has also discovered the secret of transdimensional travel. Having been thwarted in his attempt to steal Chalmers’ wife Florimel in previous adventures, the enchanter attempts to subvert Shea into aiding him. Rebuffed, he threatens vengeance, which he shortly puts into practice by kidnapping Voglinda, the young daughter of Shea and his wife Belphebe of Faerie.

In their search for their daughter, Harold and Belphebe find Malambroso has been residing in their world for some time, and from reading material discovered in his abandoned dwelling discover that he had become a fan of the Barsoom novels of Edgar Rice Burroughs. Reasoning that it is this alternate vision of Mars to which their foe has fled with the girl, they determine to travel there themselves by means of the symbolic logic formulas originally devised by Chalmers. Accordingly, they outfit themselves for the journey, or rather, de-outfit themselves, much to Belphebe’s embarrassment; Burroughs’ Barsoomians go about largely naked.

Arriving on Barsoom, the Sheas seek out the aid of the royal family of the city-state of Helium, which includes Burroughs’ protagonist, the transplanted earthman John Carter. Carter is not present, but they manage to obtain an audience with his father-in-law, Mors Kajak, “jed” (king) of Lesser Helium. Kajak turns out to be somewhat sour on earthmen, including his own son-in-law, presenting a picture of them very different from that of Burroughs. He regards Carter as something of a blowhard, claiming impossible prowess in battle, and Ulysses Paxton, the other earthman resident on Barsoom safe water bottles, as a rabble-rouser, advocating Terran ideas of equality and freedom unwelcome to the hierarchical, slave-owning Martians.

Kajak suggests they seek guidance from Paxton’s old mentor Ras Thavas, the so-called “master-mind of Mars,” formerly villainous and still somewhat amoral. Thavas consents to aid the couple in return for some professional help from psychologist Shea; having previously had Paxton transplant his brain from his original aged body into a young and virile one, he has had difficulty adjusting to changed societal expectations, not to mention the youthful urges of his new form. With his assistance it is discovered that Malambroso has sought refuge in the one Barsoomian city-state that has shown itself receptive to Paxton’s ideas – Zodanga, the traditional foe of Helium.

Together, the Sheas and Thavas succeed in tracking down Malambroso, first on thoat-back to Zodanga, and then by flier to the Great Toonoolian Marshes, with a stopover in Ptarth when their flier is damaged in an air skirmish. Over the course of their journey, Shea counsels the irascible genius successfully. Barsoom is found to be somewhat divergent from the romantic world written of by Burroughs. While the beasts are generally multi-legged, as described, the number of their limbs tend to be fewer than reported. Aside from in the medical area, the superior technology of the Martians has likewise been exaggerated, more comparable to that of Earth’s nineteenth century than the futuristic vision portrayed in the novels. And as for Barsoomian honor, vaunted as much by Thavas as it had been by Carter, they are quickly disillusioned when a Zodangan makes a crude pass at Belphebe. On the other hand, Thavas provides something of a corrective to the jaundiced Kajak’s view of Carter, who in his experience is a genuinely charismatic leader who can exact pledges of a defeated foe and make them stick stainless steel toddler water bottle. He attributes his own reform to Carter’s influence.

The final battle is between Harold and an assassin hired by the enchanter to do his dirty work; they prove fairly evenly matched swordsmen until Thavas, with his superior mental powers, makes the hired killer believe he is confronting six Harolds rather than one. The assassin then abandons the conflict, and Belphebe shoots Malambroso with her bow. Voglinda is safe, as the villain had grown somewhat fond of and paternal toward his captive while on the lam from the Sheas.

Thavas uses his medical skills to save the life of the enchanter to keep Belphebe out of trouble with the law (a sword duel is considered a fair fight by Barsoomians, while a shooting death is murder). The recovering Malambroso abandons his vendetta; having become smitten by his Barsoomian nurse, he forswears his previous infatuation with Florimel. Satisfied, the Sheas depart, though not (immediately) to their home dimension; their pursuit has been costly, and they need to return their rented flier to Zodanga to recover their deposit on it, and resell the purchased thoats they had left there.

In previous tales Harold indulged his yearning for romantic adventure; this one, as in de Camp’s immediately preceding Harold Shea story “Sir Harold and the Gnome King”, brings his more practical characteristics to the fore. It continues the changes marked by the earlier work in both the fantasy worlds visited by the protagonist to and the manner in which they are portrayed.

Previous venues were generally based on mythology or pre-modern fantastic literature; these were depicted faithfully according to the original sources, and much of the action involved puzzling out and becoming proficient in the magical systems holding sway in them. Now the venues are drawn from modern fantasy or science fiction and are re-imagined in a way that strips them of what de Camp regards as their more absurd aspects. Thus, exploration of the source material is displaced by a revisionist view of it, while the protagonists’ interest in figuring out the local physics gives way to the pursuit of more immediate goals. In the present tale there isn’t even a magical system to explore in the first place.

Unlike “Sir Harold and the Gnome King,” in which de Camp’s alterations of the original venue are attributable to events in the venue itself and the different viewpoint of the protagonist, the vision of Barsoom articulated in the present story is incompatible with Burroughs’ original stories. While de Camp rationalizes his changes by attributing Burroughs’s portrayal as erroneous reporting, the method of dimensional travel utilized by his characters depends on that reporting, in that the destination world is set by it. Thus, absurd or not, Malambroso and the Sheas should have ended up in the “erroneous” Burroughs version of Barsoom, not the “correct” de Camp version. Possibly de Camp’s implication is that Burroughs’ version would be impossible in any universe, and the one his characters reach is the closest approximation.

In any case, the “absurdities” dispensed with in de Camp’s version of Barsoom include the impossible swordsmanship of John Carter, the unlikely rectitude and supposedly advanced technology of the inhabitants, the excessive attributes of the fauna (multitudinous limbs, physically impossible size, as of the supposedly gigantic hornet-like siths), and like matters, all set down to the exaggerated storytelling of Carter, Burroughs, or both. It is a firmly de-romanticized Barsoom through which the Sheas travel.

The story shares with its predecessor another inconsistency with previous entries in the series, in that the era in which it takes place seems to have been silently revised from the 1940s of the original tales to the 1990s in which it was written. In the most notable instance, the Burroughs works Malambroso is found to have read consist of contemporary paperback copies in addition to the editions available earlier in the century baby football shirts, and the Sheas too appear familiar with the later versions.

Louis Pierson

Louis Pierson (1846 – ap.1911) est un député allemand. Il siégea au Landtag d’Alsace-Lorraine de 1882 à 1898, puis en 1911 glass bottles with lids for drinking, et au Reichstag de 1896 à 1903.

Lorrain de souche, Louis Pierson naît le 11 février 1846, à Ennery, près de Metz, en Lorraine. Après de solides études au collège Saint-Joseph, Louis Pierson est élu maire à Ay-sur-Moselle. En 1882, Louis Pierson devient membre du Landtag d’Alsace-Lorraine. Il le restera sans interruption jusqu’en 1898. En janvier 1896, Pierson est élu député au Reichstag allemand pour la circonscription de Metz. Il sera réélu en juin 1898, ne quittant le Reichstag qu’en 1903

Dans le paysage politique régional, on assiste à l’implantation progressive des partis politiques de type allemand, corrélativement à l’émergence d’une politique régionale propre au Reichsland et à ses enjeux. Louis Pierson sera une dernière fois élu en 1911, dans la deuxième chambre du Landtag d’Alsace-Lorraine, sur la circonscription de Gorze-Verny-Pange, avec 74,6&nbsp flavour it glass water bottle;% des suffrages exprimés.

Siège de Syracuse (877-878)

Prise de Syracuse. Illustration tirée de la chronique de Skylitzès de Madrid

Batailles

Le siège de Syracuse en 877-878 débouche sur la chute de la cité, qui est alors la capitale byzantine de la Sicile, au profit des Aghlabides. Le siège s’étale d’août 877 au 21 mai 878, date à laquelle la ville, abandonnée par le pouvoir central byzantin, est mise à sac par les Arabes. Cet événement constitue un moment important de la conquête musulmane de la Sicile.

Les Aghlabides ont déjà tenté de s’emparer de la ville sans succès en 828, juste après leur débarquement sur l’île en 827. En dépit de cet échec press art lemon and lime squeezer, ils parviennent à s’installer à l’ouest de la Sicile et à progresser peu à peu vers le centre de l’île. D’autres tentatives de s’emparer de Syracuse sont menées en 868, 869 et 873, sans succès.

En 875, l’émir Mohammed II, peu porté sur la guerre, décède. C’est son frère Ibrahim II, plus belliqueux, qui lui succède. Il est déterminé à s’emparer de Syracuse et il nomme un nouveau gouverneur sur l’île, en la personne de Dja’far ibn Mohammed. En outre, il envoie une flotte depuis l’Ifriqiya (le Maghreb) pour soutenir les troupes arabes en Sicile.

Dja’far commence sa campagne en 877 en razziant les territoires byzantins à l’est de l’île et en occupant les forts aux alentours de Syracuse. Le siège de la cité commence en août, par le blocus terrestre et maritime de la ville. Les événements lors du siège sont décrits de manière assez précise par le témoin oculaire Théodose le Moine, qui en fait le récit durant sa captivité.

La résistance de la ville est conduite par un patrice dont l’identité ne nous est pas parvenue. Quant aux Arabes, ils sont dirigés dans un premier temps par Dja’far mais celui-ci retourne ensuite à Palerme et confie le commandement à son fils, Abou Ishaq. Les assiégeants sont bien fournis en armes de sièges, comprenant des mangonneaux et ils lancent des assauts répétés, de jour comme de nuit. Théodose consacre la majeure partie de son récit aux souffrances des habitants fluff ball remover, « frappés par la faim et la maladie » ainsi qu’à « l’hyperinflation des prix pour des quantités dérisoires de nourriture ». Un boisseau de blé coûte 150 nomismata d’or, un boisseau de farine 200 et un bœuf 300 nomismata. Après plusieurs mois de siège, les habitants ont épuisé leurs réserves d’huile, de fruit, de fromage, de poisson et de légumes. Ils en viennent à se nourrir de gras, de la peau des animaux et certains auraient eu recours, selon Théodose, au cannibalisme, en mangeant les morts et les enfants.

En dépit de l’importance stratégique de Syracuse, les sources font apparaître que les efforts des Byzantins pour secourir la ville sont limités. Ibn al-Athîr rapporte que quelques navires byzantins apparaissent devant la ville mais ils sont vaincus sans difficulté. Dans le même temps, le gros de la flotte byzantine est mobilisé pour transporter les matériaux de construction nécessaires à la construction de la Nea Ekklesia, l’église construire par Basile Ier à Constantinople. Quand la flotte fait finalement voile vers la Sicile, sous la direction d’Adrianos, elle est tellement retardée par des vents contraires à Monemvasie qu’elle y apprend la chute de Syracuse. Sans opposition sur les mers, les Arabes peuvent détruire les fortifications protégeant les deux ports de la ville. L’une des tours est démolie, de même que les murs adjacents, ouvrant une brèche où les Arabes concentrent leurs attaques. Toutefois, le patrice de la ville rassemble les défenseurs et, durant vingt jours, parvient à combler à tenir la position contre des adversaires supérieurs en nombre.

La cité finit par tomber dans la matinée du 21 mai 878 après neuf mois de siège. Les défenseurs venaient de se retirer des murailles pour se reposer et déjeuner, ne laissant qu’une garde limitée pour tenir la brèche, sous la conduite de Jean Patrianos. Les Arabes en profitent pour lancer une attaque surprise, utilisant tous leurs engins de siège en même temps pour soutenir leur offensive jersey for football. Le patrice se précipite alors pour rejoindre les défenseurs mais les Arabes les ont tué et viennent de pénétrer dans la cité. Un détachement qui tente de bloquer la voie vers l’église du Sauveur est annihilé et les Arabes pénètrent dans l’église où la plus grande partie de la population s’est réfugiée et périt dans le massacre qui s’ensuit. Le patrice se retrouve isolé avec soixante-dix hommes au sein d’une tour, jusqu’à ce soit contraint de se rendre le lendemain. Quant à Théodose, il assiste à la liturgie dans la cathédrale quand la nouvelle de la chute de la cité lui arrive. Il est alors fait prisonnier avec l’archevêque. À la différence de qui intervient dans l’église du Sauveur, les Arabes ne les maltraitent pas mais forcent l’archevêque à révéler l’emplacement de la sacristie, où les objets précieux sont conservés.

La plus grande partie de la population est tuée lors du sac de la ville. Selon Théodose, parmi les seuls notables, plus de 4 000 sont tués. Le commandant arabe, Abu Ishaq, fait exécuter le patrice byzantin la semaine suivante et les soixante-dix hommes qui ont formé le dernier carré de la résistance byzantine sont emmenés à l’extérieur de la ville et battus à mort. Nicétas de Tarse all stainless steel water bottle, l’un des défenseurs, est pris à part, torturé puis exécuté pour avoir insulter le prophète Mahomet lors du siège. Seuls quelques Mardaïtes venant du Péloponnèse ainsi que quelques soldats de la garnison parviennent à s’enfuir et à atteindre la Grèce, où ils informent Adrianos de la chute de la ville. Cette dernière est pillée et pratiquement complètement détruite. Selon Ibn al-Athîr, les Arabes restent dans la ville durant deux mois avant de revenir vers leur base, laissant la cité en ruines. Ibn al-Athîr affirme aussi qu’une escadre byzantine apparaît devant la ville mais est repoussée après une bataille lors de laquelle quatre navires byzantins sont coulés.

Dja’far ne profite pas très longtemps de ce succès car la même année, il est tué par deux de ses esclaves, à l’instigation de son oncle et de son frère, qui s’emparent de la province. Cet événement marque le commencement d’une période de troubles internes parmi les Musulmans de Sicile. Toutefois, le conflit avec les Byzantins se poursuit dans les années 880, les Arabes tentant de soumettre les dernières forteresses byzantines dans le tiers nord-est de l’île, sans grands succès. Les raids permettent de constituer des butins qui servent à payer l’armée mais aucune position n’est conquise. Durant la même période, un sursaut byzantin intervient sur l’Italie continentale où des généraux comme Nicéphore Phocas l’Aîné remportent une série de victoires contre les Arabes.

Le manque de succès face aux Byzantins exacerbe les tensions parmi les Arabes. À Palerme, une rébellion éclate en 886 puis en 890. Ces tensions émanent de divisions diverses, notamment entre les Arabes et les Berbères, entre les Siciliens et les nouveaux arrivants d’Ifriqiya et entre les Palermitains et les habitants d’Agrigente. En 898, une véritable guerre civile entre les Arabes et les Berbères débute et ne se termine qu’avec la prise de Palerme en 900 par Abdallah, le fils d’Ibrahim II. En outre, Abdallah remporte plusieurs victoires contre les Byzantins, avant d’être rappelé en Afrique par son père. Par la suite, Ibrahim se rend lui-même en Sicile avec des volontaires et s’empare de Taormine, la dernière grande forteresse byzantine de l’île, en août 902. Même si quelques forts sont encore conservés par les Byzantins au nord-est de la Sicile et que la dernière position chrétienne est conquise seulement en 965 avec la prise de Rometta, la chute de Taormine marque la fin effective de la Sicile byzantine et la mainmise des Musulmans sur l’île.

Vanvoorstia bennettiana

Claudea (=Vanvoorstia) bennettiana von William Henry Harvey

Vanvoorstia bennettiana (englischer Name: „Bennett’s Seaweed“) ist eine ausgestorbene Rotalgenart aus Australien. Das Artepitheton ehrt den australischen Naturforscher George Bennett.

Vanvoorstia bennetiana ist eine kleine Rotalge. Von den anderen drei Arten der Gattung ist sie durch ihre kleine Größe, den feinmaschigeren Blättern sowie den reproduktiven Organstrukturen, dem Stichidium, zu unterscheiden.

Vanvoorstia bennettiana war nur von zwei Orten bekannt. Beide befinden sich in der Nähe von Sydney Harbour (auch als Port Jackson bekannt). Ein Ort befand sich in der Nähe des östlichen Teils von Spectacle Island, wo sie zwischen dem 1. Mai und dem 15. Mai 1855 entdeckt wurde. Der zweite Ort war ein Kanal zwischen Point Paper und Shark Island, wo 1886 zahlreiche Exemplare gesammelt wurden.

Bei ihrer Entdeckung galt Vanvoorstia bennettiana als häufig. Seitdem wurde Sydney Harbour jedoch massiv durch menschliche Aktivitäten verändert, was sich im Wesentlichen in der Erhöhung der Silt-Ebene bemerkbar machte. Feinmaschige Algenarten reagieren auf diese Art von Störungen sehr empfindlich, weil der Feinstaub die Blätter verstopft und dadurch das für die Photosynthese notwendige Licht nicht mehr den Organismus erreicht.

Eine Suche durch Arthur Lucas im Jahre 1916 blieb ohne Erfolg und da diese Art nur von zwei Plätzen auf der Welt bekannt war what is a meat tenderizer and what does it do, gilt sie nun als ausgestorben. Die Ursachen waren menschliche Störungen, Lebensraumzerstörung und Umweltverschmutzung entlang der gesamten New-South-Wales-Küste. 2003 wurde Vanvoorstia bennettiana von der IUCN in die Liste der ausgestorbenen Arten aufgenommen football knee socks.

George Brown (bishop of Liverpool)

George Hilary Brown (1784–1856) was an English prelate who served as the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Liverpool from 1850 to 1856.

George Hilary Brown was born in Clifton, Lancashire on 15 January 1784, the son of William Brown and Helen Brown (née Gradwell). His first cousin was Robert Gradwell, Vicar Apostolic of the London District. George entered St Cuthbert’s College, Ushaw on 25 September 1799, and received the Tonsure, the four Minor Orders insulated bottle, and the sub-diaconate, at Ushaw, on 2 April 1808, from Bishop William Gibson, Vicar Apostolic of the Northern District. By the same bishop, he was ordained, at Ushaw soccer equipment wholesale, a deacon on 14 December 1809 and a priest on 13 June 1810. He left Ushaw College on 8 April 1819, and took charge of the mission at Lancaster until he was nominated to the Lancashire Vicariate.

He was appointed Vicar Apostolic of the Lancashire District and Titular Bishop of Bugia on 5 June 1840, and consecrated to the Episcopate in Liverpool on 24 August 1840 waterproof case. The principal consecrator was Bishop John Briggs, and the principal co-consecrators were Bishop Thomas Griffiths and Bishop Thomas Walsh. His titular see was translated from Bugia to Tlos on 22 April 1842.

On 29 September 1850, the hierarchy was restored in England and Wales by Pope Pius IX. On that same day, the Lancashire Vicariate was replaced by the dioceses of Liverpool and Salford. George Hilary Brown was appointed the first Bishop of Liverpool.

He died in Liverpool on 25 January 1856, aged 72, and was buried at St Oswald’s Church, Old Swan, Liverpool.

Islam in China (1911–present)

After the fall of the Qing dynasty following the 1911 Xinhai Revolution, Sun Yat-sen, who led the new republic, immediately proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Hui (Muslim), Meng (Mongol), and the Tsang (Tibetan) peoples. When the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, Muslims, along with all other religions in China, suffered repression especially during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). In modern-day China, Islam is undergoing a revival and there has been an upsurge in Islamic expression.

The Manchu dynasty fell in 1911 water bottled in glass, and the Republic of China was established by Sun Yat Sen, who immediately proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Hui (Muslim), Meng (Mongol), and the Tsang (Tibetan) peoples. This led to some improvement in relations between these different peoples. The end of the Qing dynasty also marked an increase in Sino-foreign interaction. This led to increased contact between Muslim minorities in China and the Islamic states of the Middle East. By 1939, at least 33 Hui Muslims had studied at Cairo’s Al-Azhar University. In 1912, the Chinese Muslim Federation was formed in the capital Nanjing. Similar organization formed in Beijing (1912), Shanghai (1925) and Jinan (1934). Academic activities within the Muslim community also flourished. Before the Sino-Japanese War of 1937, there existed more than a hundred known Muslim periodicals. Thirty journals were published between 1911 and 1937. Although Linxia remained the center for religious activities, many Muslim cultural activities had shifted to Beijing. National organizations like the Chinese Muslim Association were established for Muslims. Muslims served extensively in the National Revolutionary Army and reached positions of importance, like General Bai Chongxi, who became Defence Minister of the Republic of China all football jerseys.

In the first decade of the 20th century, it has been estimated that there were 20 million Muslims in China proper (that is, China excluding the regions of Mongolia and Xinjiang). Of these, almost half resided in Gansu, over a third in Shaanxi (as defined at that time) and the rest in Yunnan.

During the Second Sino-Japanese war the Japanese followed what has been referred to as a “killing policy” and destroyed many mosques. According to Wan Lei, “Statistics showed that the Japanese destroyed 220 mosques and killed countless Hui people by April 1941.” After the Rape of Nanking mosques in Nanjing were found to be filled with dead bodies.They also followed a policy of economic oppression which involved the destruction of mosques and Hui communities and made many Hui jobless and homeless. Another policy was one of deliberate humiliation. This included soldiers smearing mosques with pork fat, forcing Hui to butcher pigs to feed the soldiers, and forcing girls to supposedly train as geishas and singers but in fact made them serve as sex slaves. Hui cemeteries were destroyed for military reasons. Many Hui fought in the war against Japan. In 1937, during the Battle of Beiping–Tianjin the Chinese government was notified by Muslim General Ma Bufang of the Ma clique that he was prepared to bring the fight to the Japanese in a telegram message. Immediately after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Ma Bufang arranged for a cavalry division under the Muslim General Ma Biao to be sent east to battle the Japanese. Ethnic Turkic Salar Muslims made up the majority of the first cavalry division which was sent by Ma Bufang.

The Hui Muslim county of Dachang was subjected to slaughter by the Japanese.

On 10 February 1938, Legation Secretary of the German Embassy, Rosen, wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee about the Nanking Massacre to recommend its purchase. Here is an excerpt from his letter and a description of some of its shots, kept in the Political Archives of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin. One of the victims killed by the Japanese was a Muslim (Mohammedan) whose name was Ha.

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking – which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree – the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese … One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.

On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha’s death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet. Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia’s parents, aged 76 and 74, and her two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2–3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7–8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha’s two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword.

Muslims affiliated with the Kuomintang moved to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War. In the Kuomintang Islamic insurgency, Muslim Kuomintang National Revolutionary Army forces in Northwest China, in Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, as well as Yunnan, continued an unsuccessful insurgency against the communists from 1950 to 1958, after the general civil war was over.

The People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949. Through many of the early years there were tremendous upheavals which culminated in the Cultural Revolution. During the Cultural Revolution, Islam, like all religions including traditional Chinese religion, was persecuted by the atheist Red Guards who were encouraged to smash the Four Olds. Traditional Chinese Confucian and Buddhist Temples, Monasteries, Churches and Mosques were all attacked However, while most were suffering malnutrition due to severe food shortages, beef was reserved for Muslim people as much as possible even during the Cultural Revolution. Non-Islam and non-Muslim could only have beef if there happened to be surplus.

Chinese Muslims say that the Soviet Union was worse in regards to its treatment of Islam than China during the “ten black years” (of the Cultural Revolution).

Since the advent of Deng Xiaoping in 1979, the Chinese government liberalised its policies toward Islam and Muslims. New legislation gave all minorities the freedom to use their own spoken and written languages; develop their own culture and education; and practice their religion. More Chinese Muslims than ever before are allowed to go on the Hajj.

Under China’s current leadership, Islam is undergoing a modest revival and there are now many mosques in China. There has been an upsurge in Islamic expression and many nationwide Islamic associations have been organised to co-ordinate inter-ethnic activities among Muslims.

In most of China, Muslims have considerable religious freedom, however, in areas like Xinjiang, where there has been unrest among Uighur Muslims, activities are restricted. There is an ethnic separatist movement among the Uighur minority, who are a Turkic people with their own language. Uighur separatists are intent on establishing the East Turkestan Republic, which existed for a few years in the 1930s and as a Soviet Communist puppet state, the Second East Turkestan Republic 1944-1950. The Soviet Union supported Uighur separatists against China during the Sino-Soviet split. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, China feared potential separatist goals of Muslim majority in Xinjiang. An April, 1996 agreement between Russia, Kazakhstan

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, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, however, assures China of avoiding a military conflict. Other Muslim states have also asserted that they have no intentions of becoming involved in China’s internal affairs. Like many other minority groups, youngsters are always given special opportunities to go to colleges whenever the college system was available. They were usually recommended by the local officials with minimum academic score requirement.

With economic reform after 1978, health care in China became largely private fee-for-service, after the socialist system of free medical care was abolished due to capitalist reforms. This was widely criticised by Muslims in the North West, who were often unable to obtain medical support in their remote communities.

China banned a book titled “Xing Fengsu” (“Sexual Customs”) which insulted Islam and placed its authors under arrest in 1989 after protests in Lanzhou and Beijing by Chinese Hui Muslims, during which the Chinese police provided protection to the Hui Muslim protestors, and the Chinese government organized public burnings of the book. The Chinese government assisted them and gave into their demands because Hui do not have a separatist movement, unlike the Uyghurs, Hui Muslim protestors who violently rioted by vandalizing property during the protests against the book were let off by the Chinese government and went unpunished while Uyghur protestors were imprisoned.

In 2007, CCTV, the People’s Republic of China’s state run television station ordered major advertising agencies not to use pig images, cartoons or slogans “to avoid conflicts with ethnic minorities”, a reference to China’s Muslims.

In response to the 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting Chinese state-run media attacked Charlie Hebdo for publishing the cartoons insulting Muhammad, with the state-run Xinhua advocated limiting freedom of speech, while another state-run newspaper Global Times said the attack was “payback” for what it characterised as Western colonialism and accusing Charlie Hebdo of trying to incite a clash of civilizations.

Different Muslim ethnic groups in different regions are treated differently by the Chinese government in regards to religious freedom. Religious freedom is present for Hui Muslims, who can practice their religion, build Mosques, and have their children attend Mosques, while more controls are placed specifically on Uyghurs in Xinjiang. Since the 1980s Islamic private schools (Sino-Arabic schools (中阿學校)) have been supported and permitted by the Chinese government among Muslim areas, only specifically excluding Xinjiang from allowing these schools because of separatist sentiment there.

Although religious education for children is officially forbidden by law in China, the Communist party allows Hui Muslims to violate this law and have their children educated in religion and attend Mosques while the law is enforced on Uyghurs. After secondary education is completed, China then allows Hui students who are willing to embark on religious studies under an Imam. China does not enforce the law against children attending Mosques on non-Uyghurs in areas outside of Xinjiang.

Hui Muslims who are employed by the state are allowed to fast during Ramadan unlike Uyghurs in the same positions, the amount of Hui going on Hajj is expanding, and Hui women are allowed to wear veils, while Uyghur women are discouraged from wearing them and Uyghurs find it difficult to get passports to go on Hajj.

Hui religious schools are allowed a massive autonomous network of mosques and schools run by a Hui Sufi leader was formed with the approval of the Chinese government even as he admitted to attending an event where Bin Laden spoke.

Uyghur views vary by the oasis they live in. China has historically favored Turpan and Hami. Uyghurs in Turfan and Hami and their leaders like Emin Khoja allied with the Qing against Uyghurs in Altishahr. During the Qing dynasty, China enfeoffed the rulers of Turpan and Hami (Kumul) as autonomous princes, while the rest of the Uyghurs in Altishahr (the Tarim Basin) were ruled by Begs. Uyghurs from Turpan and Hami were appointed by China as officials to rule over Uyghurs in the Tarim Basin. Turpan is more economically prosperous and views China more positively than the rebellious Kashgar, which is the most anti-China oasis. Uyghurs in Turpan are treated leniently and favourably by China with regards to religious policies, while Kashgar is subjected to controls by the government. In Turpan and Hami, religion is viewed more positively by China than religion in Kashgar and Khotan in southern Xinjiang. Both Uyghur and Han Communist officials in Turpan turn a blind eye to the law and allow religious Islamic education for Uyghur children water bottle for running handheld. Celebrating at religious functions and going on Hajj to Mecca is encouraged by the Chinese government, for Uyghur members of the Communist party. From 1979-1989, 350 mosques were built in Turpan. Han, Hui, and the Chinese government are viewed much more positively by Uyghurs specifically in Turpan, with the government providing better economic, religious, and political treatment for them.

Tensions between Hui Muslims and Uyghurs arise because Hui troops and officials often dominated the Uyghurs and crush Uyghur revolts. Xinjiang’s Hui population increased by over 520 percent between 1940 and 1982, an average annual growth of 4.4 percent, while the Uyghur population only grew at 1.7 percent. This dramatic increase in Hui population led inevitably to significant tensions between the Hui and Uyghur populations. Some Uyghurs in Kashgar remember that the Hui army at the Battle of Kashgar (1934) massacred 2,000 to 8,000 Uyghurs, which causes tension as more Hui moved into Kashgar from other parts of China. Some Hui criticize Uyghur separatism and generally do not want to get involved in conflict in other countries. Hui and Uyghur live separately, attending different mosques.

The Uyghur militant organization East Turkestan Islamic Movement’s magazine Islamic Turkistan has accused the Chinese “Muslim Brotherhood” (the Yihewani) of being responsible for the moderation of Hui Muslims and the lack of Hui joining jihadist groups in addition to blaming other things for the lack of Hui Jihadists, such as the fact that for more than 300 years Hui and Uyghurs have been enemies of each other, no separatist Islamist organizations among the Hui, the fact that the Hui view China as their home, and the fact that the “infidel Chinese” language is the language of the Hui.

Hui Muslim drug dealers are accused by Uyghur Muslims of pushing heroin on Uyghurs. Heroin has been vended by Hui dealers. There is a typecast image in the public eye of heroin being the province of Hui dealers. Hui have been involved in the Golden Triangle drug area.

There have been many occurrences of violent sectarian fighting between different Hui sects. Sectarian fighting between Hui sects led to the Jahriyya rebellion in the 1780s and the 1895 revolt. After a hiatus after the People’s Republic of China came to power, sectarian infighting resumed in the 1990s in Ningxia between different sects. Several sects refuse to intermarry with each other. One Sufi sect circulated an anti-Salafi pamphlet in Arabic.

In Tibet, the majority of Muslims are Hui people. Hatred between Tibeans and Muslims stems from events during the Muslim warlord Ma Bufang’s rule in Qinghai such as Ngolok rebellions (1917–49) and the Sino-Tibetan War, but in 1949 the Communists put an end to the violence between Tibetans and Muslims, however, new Tibetan-Muslim violence broke out after China engaged in liberalization. Riots broke out between Muslims and Tibetans over incidents such as bones in soups and prices of balloons, and Tibetans accused Muslims of being cannibals who cooked humans in their soup and of contaminating food with urine. Tibetans attacked Muslim restaurants. Fires set by Tibetans which burned the apartments and shops of Muslims resulted in Muslim families being killed and wounded in the 2008 mid-March riots. Due to Tibetan violence against Muslims, the traditional Islamic white caps have not been worn by many Muslims. Scarfs were removed and replaced with hairnets by Muslim women in order to hide. Muslims prayed in secret at home when in August 2008 the Tibetans burned the Mosque. Incidents such as these which make Tibetans look bad on the international stage are covered up by the Tibetan exile community. The repression of Tibetan separatism by the Chinese government is supported by Hui Muslims. In addition, Chinese-speaking Hui have problems with Tibetan Hui (the Tibetan speaking Kache minority of Muslims).

The main Mosque in Lhasa was burned down by Tibetans and Chinese Hui Muslims were violently assaulted by Tibetan rioters in the 2008 Tibetan unrest. Tibetan exiles and foreign scholars like ignore and do not talk about sectarian violence between Tibetan Buddhists and Muslims. The majority of Tibetans viewed the wars against Iraq and Afghanistan after 9/11 positively and it had the effect of galvanizing anti-Muslim attitudes among Tibetans and resulted in an anti-Muslim boycott against Muslim owned businesses. Tibetan Buddhists propagate a false libel that Muslims cremate their Imams and use the ashes to convert Tibetans to Islam by making Tibetans inhale the ashes, even though the Tibetans seem to be aware that Muslims practice burial and not cremation since they frequently clash against proposed Muslim cemeteries in their area.

Since the Chinese government supports and backs up the Hui Muslims, the Tibetans deliberately attack the Hui Muslims as a way to demonstrate anti-government sentiment and because they have a background of sectarian violence against each other since Ma Bufang’s rule due to their separate religions and ethnicity and Tibetans resent Hui economic domination.

Jingtang Jiaoyu was a system of Islamic education developed during the Ming dynasty among the Hui, centered around Mosques. The Arabic and Persian language Thirteen Classics were part of the main curriculum. In the madrassas, some Chinese Muslim literature like the Han Kitab were used for educational purposes. Liu Zhi (scholar) wrote texts to help Hui learn Arabic. Persian was the main Islamic foreign language used by Chinese Muslims, followed by Arabic.

Hui Muslim Generals like Ma Fuxiang, Ma Hongkui, and Ma Bufang funded schools or sponsored students studying abroad. Imam Hu Songshan and Ma Linyi were involved in reforming Islamic education inside China.

Muslim Kuomintang officials in the Republic of China government supported the Chengda Teachers Academy, which helped usher in a new era of Islamic education in China, promoting nationalism and Chinese language among Muslims, and fully incorporating them into the main aspects of Chinese society. The Ministry of Education provided funds to the Chinese Islamic National Salvation Federation for Chinese Muslim’s education. The President of the federation was General Bai Chongxi (Pai Chung-hsi) and the vice president was Tang Kesan (Tang Ko-san). 40 Sino-Arabic primary schools were founded in Ningxia by its Governor Ma Hongkui.

Imam Wang Jingzhai studied at Al-Azhar University in Egypt along with several other Chinese Muslim students, the first Chinese students in modern times to study in the Middle East. Wang recalled his experience teaching at madrassas in the provinces of Henan (Yu), Hebei (Ji), and Shandong (Lu) which were outside of the traditional stronghold of Muslim education in northwest China, and where the living conditions were poorer and the students had a much tougher time than the northwestern students. In 1931 China sent five students to study at Al-Azhar in Egypt, among them was Muhammad Ma Jian and they were the first Chinese to study at Al-Azhar. Na Zhong, a descendant of Nasr al-Din (Yunnan) was another one of the students sent to Al-Azhar in 1931, along with Zhang Ziren, Ma Jian, and Lin Zhongming.

Hui Muslims from the Central Plains (Zhongyuan) differed in their view of women’s education than Hui Muslims from the northwestern provinces, with the Hui from the Central Plains provinces like Henan having a history of women’s Mosques and religious schooling for women, while Hui women in northwestern provinces were kept in the house. However, in northwestern China reformers started bringing female education in the 1920s. In Linxia, Gansu, a secular school for Hui girls was founded by the Muslim warlord Ma Bufang, the school was named Shuada Suqin Wmen’s Primary School after his wife Ma Suqin who was also involved in its founding. Hui Muslim refugees fled to northwest China from the central plains after the Japanese invasion of China, where they continued to practice women’s education and build women’s mosque communities, while women’s education was not adopted by the local northwestern Hui Muslims and the two different communities continued to differ in this practice.

General Ma Fuxiang donated funds to promote education for Hui Muslims and help build a class of intellectuals among the Hui and promote the Hui role in developing the nation’s strength.

After secondary education is completed, Chinese law then allows students who are willing to embark on religious studies under an Imam.

Inline-Alpin-Weltcup 2016

Der Inline-Alpin-Weltcup 2016 wurde vom 4. Juni bis 14. August 2016 ausgetragen. Am 4. und 5. Juni fanden in Unterensingen und am 12. und 13. August in Villablino die Inline-Alpin-Weltmeisterschaften 2016 statt.

Der Rennkalender umfasste fünf Weltcuporten in Europa. Neu in den Rennkalender hinzugekommen ist Pieve Vergonte (Italien) xl soccer socks, Turnov (Tschechen) und Unterensingen (Deutschland). Dafür wurde Bramberg (Österreich), Pisogne (Italien), Němčičky (Tschechien) aus dem Kalender gestrichen. Zum ersten mal nach 2012 und 2014 gehören die Inline-Alpin-Weltmeisterschaften nicht zum Weltcupkalender.

Deutschland Unterensingen:

Tschechien Turnov:

Tschechien Jirkov:

Italien Pieve Vergonte:

Spanien Villablino:

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Discours sur les sciences et les arts

Discours sur les sciences et les arts (Vertoog over kunst en wetenschap) is een werk uit 1750, geschreven door Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Daarin betoogt hij dat kunst en wetenschap de menselijke moraal corrumpeerden. Het was zijn eerste succesvolle filosofische werk dat gepubliceerd werd en het eerste werk waarin hij zijn gedachten over natuur versus samenleving ontwikkelde. De rest van zijn intellectuele leven zou hij aan dit thema besteden football uniforms. Het boek wordt beschouwd als een van zijn belangrijkste werken.

Rousseau schreef het Discours in antwoord op een advertentie die verscheen in een editie (1750) van de Mercure de France, waarin de Académie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de Dijon een prijs uitloofde voor een opstel dat antwoord zou geven op de vraag: Heeft het herstel van de wetenschappen en kunsten bijgedragen tot een hogere moraal? Volgens Rousseau: Een moment nadat ik deze advertentie had gelezen zag ik een geheel ander universum voor mij en voelde mij een andere man. Hij ontwikkelde de gedachtegang die hij de rest van zijn leven zou blijven uitdragen where can i buy glass water bottles, namelijk dat de ontwikkeling in beschaving een vernietigende invloed op menselijke individuen had. Hij won de eerste prijs in genoemde wedstrijd; dit was het begin van een loopbaan, die anders die van schrijver van onbekende muziek- en toneelstukken zou zijn geweest, als beroemd filosoof.

De theorie van Rousseau was controversieel en er kwamen veel reacties op. Jules Lemaître noemde later de theorie van Rousseau een van de sterkste bewijzen van de stompzinnigheid van de mensheid. De schrijver zelf beantwoordde vijf critici in de twee jaar nadat hij de prijs had gewonnen. Onder deze vijf antwoorden waren brieven gericht aan Stanislaus Leszczyński, koning van Polen, Guillaume Thomas François Raynal en M. Charles Bordes. De reacties op zijn theorie gaven hem helderheid met betrekking tot de zuiverheid van zijn theorie en hij begon een thema te ontwikkelen, dat hij verder uitwerkte in zijn geschrift Discours sur l’origine et les fondements de l’inégalité parmi les hommes. Misbruik van de kunst en wetenschappen zou volgens hem de mensheid, die van nature goed was, leiden tot verderf. Met name een overdadige levenswijze en de politiek werden door Rousseau gezien als bijzonder schadelijk. Hij had later enigszins ambivalente gevoelens over zijn eerste geschrift; in een brief beschreef hij het als zijn belangrijkste geschrift en slechts een van de drie, waarin hij zijn filosofische theorie had ontwikkeld (de anderen waren Discours sur l’origine et les fondements de l’inégalité parmi les hommes en Émile, ou De l’éducation). Bij een andere gelegenheid kwalificeerde hij zijn eersteling echter als op zijn best gemiddeld.

Projet concernant de nouveaux signes pour la musique · Dissertation sur la musique moderne · Discours sur les sciences et les arts · Discours sur la vertu du héros · Le devin du village · Narcisse ou l’Amant de lui-même · Discours sur l’origine et les fondements de l’inégalité parmi les hommes · Examen de deux principes avancés par M. Rameau · Jugement du Projet de paix perpétuelle de Monsieur l’Abbé de Saint-Pierre · Lettres morales, écrites entre 1757 et 1758, publication posthume en 1888 · Lettre sur la providence · J.-J. Rousseau, Citoyen de Genève, à M. d’Alembert sur les spectacles · Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse · Émile, ou De l’éducation, dans lequel est inclus La profession de foi du vicaire savoyard au livre IV · Du contrat social · Lettres écrites de la montagne · Lettres sur la législation de la Corse · Considérations sur le gouvernement de Pologne · Pygmalion · Essai sur l’origine des langues · Projet de constitution pour la Corse · Edictionnaire de musique · Les Confessions · Dialogues, Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques · Les Rêveries du promeneur solitaire · Émile et Sophie, ou les Solitaires