Monthly Archives: December 2017

Beit HaShalom

Beit HaShalom, (Hebrew: בית השלום‎, lit. House of Peace) or the Rajabi House, also known as Beit HaMeriva (“House of Contention”), is a four story apartment building located in the H-2 Area of Hebron.

Originally built by two Palestinian businessmen, the building was subsequently purchased and inhabited by local Jewish settlers in 2007. In December 2008, the settlers were evacuated by the IDF by Israeli Supreme Court order: Palestinians[who?] alleged that the building had been purchased unlawfully with the help of a Palestinian frontman, and the use of forged documents, and the case was taken to court. In September 2012, the Jerusalem District Court ruled that the purchase was indeed valid, and that the house must be returned to the purchasers.

In March 2014, the Israeli Supreme Court upheld the ruling. The Israeli Defense Minister subsequently allowed the settlers to reinhabit the building.

The building is located in a strategic[unreliable source] and Worshipers Way. An Israeli checkpoint is nearby.

The building is named after Palestinian businessman Faez Rajabi who, together with Abdelkader Salwar, originally purchased the land and hired Hebron resident Majdi Al-Ja’abari[unreliable source] to construct the four-story structure. The construction of the building in Hebron’s a-Ras neighbourhood, on a 1,100-square-metre property with space for some 20 apartments, began in 1995.[unreliable source] The Palestinian developers originally designed it for their own use as shops and apartments, but the construction was not fully finished. A number of young Palestinian families had paid down payments for their future apartments.[unreliable source]

Construction was suspended in 2000,[unreliable source] according to Al-Ja’abari due to pressure from the settlers and their mounting presence in the region. After the intervention of many human rights organisations, and local and international media,[unreliable source] the authorities[clarification needed] eventually allowed Al-Ja’abari to proceed with the construction in 2007.[unreliable source]

On 19 March 2007, over 200 Jews, mostly yeshiva students from the Hebron area, entered the building in the evening hours. They reached the building by running through an Arab village. The decision to enter the building that day was reached after the construction of the building was restarted,[unreliable source] and the Jews of Hebron received information that Arabs intended to enter the building in the near future.

The settlers named the house “Shalom House”. Hebron Jewish Community’s spokesperson Noam Arnon said the entry into the house was not meant for provocation but for peaceful residence by Jews. About the importance of the building, spokesmen stressed: ″The house of peace, on the main road between Hebron and Kiryat Arba is an additional link in the growth of the City of the Patriarchs and Matriarchs. Bonding Hebron and Kiryat Arba, this building will provide homes for dozens, if not hundreds of Israelis, waiting to live in Hebron.″ The IDF, who arrived upon the take-over, provided security for the settlers.

On the same day, Rajabi filed a complaint with the police.[clarification needed] He charged that the settlers were trespassers, and had occupied his building by force. Over the next week, two Palestinians suspected of selling the house were detained; one arrested in Jordan, the other by the Palestinian Authority. Hebron’s Jewish Committee condemned the arrests, and accused the PA of having an “anti-Semitic nature” and “prevalent racial hatred”. Rajabi was summoned to Jericho by the Palestinian Authority, and detained for 6 months “for his own security”.

The settlement was politically controversial as was the legality of the purchase. The Israeli Civil Administration initially decided that the settlers’ move into the house was illegal and they must be evacuated. It advised Defense Minister Amir Peretz to order an immediate evacuation of the house, based on the argument that the settlers did not receive the necessary permits from the Civil Administration. The settlers could have been evacuated under Civil Administration Order 25, which determined that the occupation or transfer of ownership of homes in the West Bank by Jews requires the approval of the head of the civil administration. The legal basis for the Defense Minister’s decision to evacuate the home in Hebron also came from a 1980 cabinet decision, when then-prime minister Menachem Begin’s government decided that the cabinet was the only body authorized to approve the expansion of the Jewish community in Hebron. Defense Minister Amir Peretz and Deputy Defense Minister Efraim Sneh expected the evacuation to be completed by mid-May 2007. But ministers and MKs who spoke to Prime Minister Ehud Olmert said he opposed evacuating the home at this stage, and hinted that he would prefer to block an evacuation until after the Labor primary, when Olmert was expected to have an easier defense minister with which to work. A clear majority against the evacuation was expected if the matter would come to a vote in the cabinet.

The Ministry of Defense prohibited the occupants from making improvements to the building to render it habitable for winter – upholding a court order that forbade any change in the status quo of the house. The building had no windows, only gaps where windows were intended to be installed. The gaps were sealed with plastic sheets.

On 27 November 2007, the Civil Administration issued eviction orders against the occupants. The settlers’ lawyer Attorney Nadav Ha’etzni, representing the claimed purchasers “Tal Construction and Investment of Karnei Shomron” and the “Society for the Renewal of the Jewish Community in Hebron”, petitioned the High Court against the order. In January 2008, the state defended its decision to recognize the settlers as “recent trespassers”, and to evict them as quickly as possible because there was insufficient evidence to prove that the sale of the building had been completed. Pending the case in a military appeals court concerning the sale of the building, however, the Court decided to delay the judgement on the eviction.

In November 2008, the High Court ordered the vacation of the building and named the State temporary custodian of the property, pending a ruling on the proprietary rights. Ehud Olmert declared that he did not want to execute the Court’s order, but merely stop the repeated settler attacks on Palestinian civilians and property. After the Court had ruled in favour of the government’s decision to evacuate the site, the settlers built barricades, and prepared to resist efforts to have them evicted. Baruch Marzel declared that “We must go to war, using any means to prevent this crime from occurring.”

Ma’an News Agency reported that, in the days prior to the evacuation, settlers repeatedly attacked Palestinian homes in the city and fired at them at random. Settlers set fire to two Palestinian homes and a store. Over three days they rioted in Hebron, attacking Palestinians with stones and clubs while Israeli soldiers and police looked on. On 4 December 2008, the Jewish settlers were evacuated from the site by Israeli police. The evacuation took an hour and was carried out by some 600 members of the security forces. The confrontation itself was less violent than had been feared.

However, following the evacuation on 4 December 2008, “Jewish extremists embarked on an unprecedented rampage through Hebron”. UN OCHA field worker Tareq Talahme claimed that “hundreds” of settlers entered Hebron and torched fields, olive groves, and yards in the nearby Wadi Nasara (Wadi al Hussein), between Hebron and Kiryat Arba. They set fire to 5 houses near the building, and damaged more than 27 cars. Settler youths took over a Palestinian home in the valley and caused extensive damage. Settlers fired at Palestinians. A man was caught on videotape shooting at a Palestinian and his son in Wadi al Hussein’. Both Palestinians were evacuated by the IDF in serious condition. The shooting incidents and destructions in the valley were recorded in affidavits by Al-Haq. Two Kiryat Arba residents, suspected of shooting at Palestinians at close range were arrested. The shooting was filmed by B’Tselem members. Israelis and Palestinians clashed after settlers entered the Palestinian-controlled part of Hebron (Area H1) and set fire to at least three cars. A Palestinian news team that was filming the violence was attacked. Settlers vandalized Palestinian property and pelt homes with rocks through the West Bank. The US consulate reported that across the West Bank burning Palestinian fields, trees, houses and cars were seen. The press reported that settlers attacked the villages of Burin and Huwara, south of Nablus, damaging homes, burning trees, agricultural fields and cars late on 4 December. Rabbis for Human Rights reported that most northern West Bank roads were blocked by settlers, and widespread fires were visible in the Nablus region. Settlers stopped a PRCS ambulance in Hebron and defaced the ambulance, painting “let the Arabs die”.

According to Haaretz, the settlers had purchased the property after several years of negotiations with the Palestinian owners. The settlers claimed they had bought the house legally, and had signed a contract, a claim which the Palestinians[who?] denied.

On 3 July 2007, the Israeli State declared before the High Court that the police forensics department had found that the documents which supported the settlers’ claim of legal ownership had been forgeries – or provided serious doubt regarding their authenticity. The Palestinian claimants admitted that had indeed agreed to transfer ownership of the property to a third party, but claimed the deal was later cancelled. They did not provide documentation to support this claim.

In January 2008, in response to a petition by the settlers against eviction orders, the state declared that the Palestinian owner of the building was undoubtedly in possession of the property when settlers took it over on 19 March 2007. The state recognized the settlers as “recent trespassers”, and said that there was insufficient evidence to prove that the sale of the building to the Jewish purchasers had been completed. According to the state, a contract for the sale of the building was indeed signed between Rajabi and a Palestinian partner on the one side, and Ayub Jaber, a Palestinian intermediary for the purchasers, on the other, in return for 460,000 Jordanian dinars. However, many documents the alleged Jewish purchasers presented to the police Crimes Investigation Unit were forged. The state’s attorney wrote ″We are talking about large-scale forgeries of many documents that were supposed to support the petitioners’ [the settlers’] claims″. The company that purchased the property had in recent years already been involved with suspected forgery and fraud upon house purchases.

In November 2008, the settlers’ lawyer Nadav Ha’etzni stated that his clients had purchased the building as early as 2004. A Palestinian front man, Ayub Yosef Jaber, had signed a contract with Rajabi on 23 March 2004. A video in which, according to the Jerusalem Post, Rajabi was seen signing the sales contract was submitted to the Court. Ayub Jaber, who worked on behalf of the Jewish group, signed the sale agreement with the Jordanian front company “Tal Building and Investments Karnei Shomron”.

In September 2012, the Jerusalem District Court ruled that the purchase was indeed valid and the house must be returned to the purchasers within one month. It dismissed the claim that the purchase agreement had been annulled before it was finalized. However, the judge stressed that he was not ordering the Civil Administration to pursue legal measures that would give the settlers authorization to live in the house. Nachi Eyal, Director of the Legal Forum for the Land of Israel, commented that “The Minister of Defense and representatives of the State Prosecutor need to apologize and compensate the owners in Hebron.”

On 11 March 2014, the Supreme Court affirmed the ruling of the Jerusalem District Court regarding ownership. The court found that the original vendors had turned a blind eye to the fact that the buyer was a strawman working for a Jewish group. The court determined that the property should only be handed over after approval of the Minister of Defense to register the property in the name of the settlers. The ruling also did not oblige the Government to register the settler’s rights. The court however ruled that the purchasers still owed the vendor $217,000 on the transaction, and could not reinhabit the property until the outstanding sum had been paid. Peace Now called the potential new settlement “a disaster-in-the-Making”.

Following the High Court’s decision, Defense Minister Moshe Ya’alon approved the return of the building’s new owners on 13 April 2014 head shaver. Soon after the Defense Minister’s decision, three families moved in.

In response to Ya’alon’s approval, United Nations Special Rapporteur Richard Falk urged Israel to prevent settlers from taking over the Al-Rajabi House. He said that ″Hebron embodies all the worst features of apartheid, colonialism and oppression that are to be found throughout Occupied Palestine″. He added that the establishment of this settlement at Al-Rajabi House was a move toward connecting the settlement of Kiryat Arba with the other outposts in the Old City of Hebron and the Cave of the Patriarchs.

Beit HaShalom is the first new settlement established inside Hebron since the 1980s and the first settlement in this particular part of Hebron. Meretz MK Zehava Gal-On noted that severe restrictions on the movements of Palestinians who live on the road already existed, and stated that the new settlement would only worsen their situation, a prospect envisaged by other observers. It will be the fifth settlement within the Hebron municipality boundaries, after Beit Hadassah, Avraham Avinu, Beit Romano and Tel Rumeida.

The man behind the scenes who had financed the purchase of the house was revealed as a Jewish man from Brooklyn, Morris Abraham. He was reportedly a descendant of the earlier Hebron Jewish community. He said that his family survived the 1929 Hebron massacre.

The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this.

According to Richard Falk, the Beit HaShalom settlement is considered illegal under international law and violate article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention.

For purchasing land or property in Palestine, people who do not hold an I.D. from the West Bank or Gaza must have a Buyer’s Permit Approval from the Palestinian Authority. A Palestinian Authority court ruled in 2010 that selling, or attempting to sell, land to a foreign country is a criminal offense which could result in the death penalty. Land sales to Israelis are considered treason by the Palestinians. However death penalties were considered in 2010 unlikely to be implemented.


Geheimkonferenz der Friedrich List-Gesellschaft im September 1931 über Möglichkeiten und Folgen einer Kreditausweitung

Am 16./17. September 1931 team jerseys football, auf dem Höhepunkt der Weltwirtschaftskrise, nach Ausbruch der deutschen Bankenkrise, fand die Geheimkonferenz der Friedrich List-Gesellschaft Über Möglichkeiten und Folgen einer Kreditausweitung statt. Gesprächs- und Diskussionsgrundlage der Konferenz war der Plan von Wilhelm Lautenbach Möglichkeiten einer (aktiven) Konjunkturbelebung durch Investition und Kreditausweitung („Lautenbach-Plan“) vom 9. September 1931. Knut Borchardt und Hans Otto Schötz veröffentlichten 1991 das ursprünglich stenografische Protokoll der Geheimkonferenz.

Repräsentativ für die Konjunkturtheorie der damaligen Zeit war der Glaube der Internationalen Handelskammer an das von der klassischen Theorie geprägte Paradigma, dass erhöhte Staatsausgaben den Zins zu kreditfinanzierten Unternehmensinvestitionen verteuern würden. 1927 hatte der Verband der deutschen Industrie staatliche Sparpolitik vehement eingefordert (außerdem war man noch von der großen Inflation bis 1923 traumatisiert) und nicht nur konservative Kreise waren dementsprechend gegenüber staatlichen Mehrausgaben ohnehin skeptisch. Ab 1929 wurde die Nettokreditaufnahme des Staatshaushalts drastisch verringert. Hinsichtlich wirtschaftlicher Krisen galt das Paradigma, dass Krisen sich von selbst (der Markt solle von schwachen Unternehmen gereinigt werden – heute: Marktbereinigung) ausbrennten und man abwarten müsse bis die sogenannten „Selbstheilungskräfte“ des Marktes einen Aufschwung aus dem Tiefpunkt der Krise herbeiführen würden. In seiner Schrift Gedanken zur Krisenbekämpfung (2. September 1931) stellte Staatssekretär des Reichsfinanzministeriums Hans Schäffer mögliche Alternativen noch wie folgt dar:

Im Vorfeld der Konferenz charakterisierte Gerhard Colm die deflationäre Krise in drei Punkten:

Inspiriert von Lautenbachs Erörterung seiner Schrift Defizitpolitik? Reichsbankzusage als Katalysator? Der Verzweiflungsweg – ohne Auslandskapital!, wandte sich Schäffer an Reichsbankpräsident Hans Luther. Im Juli 1931 hatte Heinrich Rittershausen Am Tage nach dem Zusammenbruch veröffentlicht, das sich auf den Zusammenbruch der Deutschen Banken bezog, worin sich Rittershausen zur Wirtschaftsbelebung für Kreditschöpfung mittels einer Politik billigen Geldes ausspricht. Am Abend des 31. August 1931 trafen sich Hans Schäffer und Hans Luther, erörterten die Konzepte. Luther verständigte sich mit Reichssparkommissar Friedrich Saemisch, sie beriefen die Geheimkonferenz ein.

Lautenbachs erster Entwurf, den er am 26. August Hans Schäffer vorgelegt hatte, beschreibt die Ausgangssituation wie folgt:
„Wir stehen nun vor folgendem Dilemma: Die Rücksicht auf unsere Zahlungsbilanz zwingt uns zu äußerst vorsichtiger Kreditpolitik, nach der allgemein herrschenden Ansicht sogar zu stark restriktiver Kreditpolitik. Weil ständig die Gefahr eines starken Abzugs der noch vorhandenen kurzfristigen Auslandskredite besteht, scheint es ein selbstverständliches Gebot vorsichtiger und solider Wirtschaftspolitik zu sein, durch Kreditverknappung dafür zu sorgen, daß in unserem Außenhandel das Verhältnis von Aus- und Einfuhr nicht nur in dem bisherigen Verhältnis zueinander erhalten bleibt, sondern daß nach Möglichkeit der Aktivsaldo noch stark erhöht wird («Deflationsdruck»).

Auf der anderen Seite bedroht eine solche deflationistische Kreditpolitik das Gesamtwirtschaftsleben mit einer weiteren Lähmung und in deren Auswirkung auch mit einer vollkommenen Zerrüttung der öffentlichen Finanzen. Die Verschlimmerung der wirtschaftlichen und finanziellen Lage würde selbstverständlich auch schwerste innenpolitische Verwicklungen zeitigen. Das Gesamtbild, das Deutschland bei einer solchen Entwicklung bietet, würde unzweifelhaft die Möglichkeit einer Konsolidierung unserer privaten Auslandsschulden in unabsehbare Ferne rücken und zugleich die Gefahr eines übermäßigen fortgesetzten Abzugs kurzfristiger Kredite und, last not least, unaufhaltsamer Kapitalflucht heraufbeschwören.“

Lautenbach über seine Grundannahmen:

Lautenbach ging bereits in seinem Gutachten zur Brauns-Kommission (Auslandskapital als Katalysator?) davon aus, dass der Konjunkturverlauf von der Investitionstätigkeit abhängt „und daß die Bedingung des Aufschwungs stets Kreditexpansion ist.“ Den Unternehmern war der Zugang zu Krediten allerdings verwehrt, da die Banken nicht genügend liquide waren. Und Lautenbach folgerte: „Um aus der Depression herauszukommen, bedarf es erneuter Kapitalinvestitionen, welche Unternehmer mit Hilfe von Kredit in Angriff nehmen. Es gibt heute weder solche Unternehmer, weil nämlich für sie nirgends irgendwelche Chancen zu erblicken sind, noch gäbe es Kredit.“

Staatliche Investitionen hätten genauso Kredit benötigt – Anleihebegebung gegen ausländisches Kapital war freilich theoretische Finanzierungsmöglichkeit. Im Sommer und Herbst 1931 (nach dem Zusammenbruch der Deutschen Banken) war jedoch die Chance auf Auslandskapital überaus gering. Eine Senkung der Leitzinsen durch die Reichsbank hielt Lautenbach nicht für sinnvoll, da damit der Abzug von noch mehr Auslandskapital riskiert worden wäre. Insofern blieben nicht viele Alternativen und Lautenbach kommt zu dem Schluß: „So bleibt als einzige praktisch mögliche Kostenverminderung die Senkung der Löhne und Gehälter übrig.“, und stellt sogleich die Frage: „Was bedeutet dies konjunkturpolitisch?“

Lautenbach war freilich klar, dass sinkende Löhne bei gleichbleibender Beschäftigung die gesamtwirtschaftliche Nachfrage reduzieren, weshalb die Beschäftigung bei gleichbleibendem Lohnaufwand der Unternehmen unbedingt auszuweiten war. In der gegebenen Situation hätte eine wesentliche Belebung der Konjunktur nur mittels staatlicher, kreditfinanzierter Investitionen möglich sein können und die freiwillige Senkung der Löhne als Opfer der Arbeiter sollte gleichzeitig dem Ausland Sanktionsbereitschaft signalisieren. Steuersenkungen wären konjunkturpolitisch zwar sinnvoll gewesen, hätten aber gegenüber dem Ausland ungünstig gewirkt.

Da Lautenbach 1931 die Mechanik der Kreditgewährung längst internalisiert hatte, ging sein Plan davon aus, dass kreditfinanzierte Staatsaufträge die eingefrorenen Kredite der Unternehmen liquidieren und damit die eingefrorenen Kredite der Unternehmen durch staatliche Kredite (bei den Geschäftsbanken) ersetzt würden, womit sich die Bankenliquidität nicht verschlechterte. Würde die Rentabilität der Unternehmen gesteigert, so dass sich das Vertrauen der in- wie ausländischen Geldvermögenden bzw. das des Kapitalmarktes in die deutschen Unternehmensanleihen erhöhe, können die Unternehmer ihre Investitionen so fremdfinanzieren, dass weder die Liquidität der inländischen Geschäftsbanken noch die der Reichsbank geschmälert würde.

Finanztechnisch geht der Lautenbach-Plan davon aus, dass die Reichsbank dem Staat Kreditkontingente zu Infrastrukturinvestitionen zur Verfügung stellt, womit die Unternehmer ihre Beschäftigung erhöhen und selbst Investitionsgüter (nachdem diese ihre Lager räumten) nachzufragen beginnen. Zu weiterer Kreditvergabe an die Unternehmen werden die Geschäftsbanken mittels Kreditgarantien der Reichsbank ermutigt. Beginnt die Konjunktur wieder anzulaufen, beginnen die Privaten wieder vermehrt Ausgaben zu tätigen, womit offene Kredite bedient werden können. Aus der Kreditaufnahme entstehen für andere Wirtschaftssubjekte Einnahmen, die wenn diese wieder ausgegeben werden, wiederum die Bedienung der Kredite ermöglichen. Zuvor gesenkte Löhne und Preise erhöhen die Konkurrenzfähigkeit am Auslandsmarkt und die gesenkten Preise erhöhen die Nachfrage am Inlandsmarkt, sofern sich die Beschäftigungslage im Inland verbessert. Kommt der deutsche Wirtschaftsmotor wieder in Schwung, wird ausländisches Kapital (wieder) angezogen, um deutsche Unternehmenspapiere zu erwerben, womit den Unternehmern die Fundierung ihrer Bankschulden möglich wird.

Die kredittechnische Conclusio erläutert Lautenbach in seinem Plan wie folgt: „Das Gesamtergebnis der angestellten kredittheoretischen Überlegungen läßt sich in den Satz zusammenfassen, daß eine Kreditexpansion, in Verbindung mit großzügigen Investitionen, nicht zu einer weiteren Illiquidisierung, sondern vielmehr zur Liquidisierung und Konsolidierung unserer Kreditwirtschaft beiträgt spongebob toothpaste dispenser.“

Wilhelm Röpke beschreibt die Problematik der damaligen wirtschaftlichen Situation wie folgt: „Das Entscheidende dieser sekundären Deflation ist nämlich, daß die Einschrumpfung des Kreditvolumens und die Einschrumpfung des Wirtschaftsvolumens in einer fatalen Wechselbeziehung zueinander stehen.“ Wo ist Ursache und wo ist Wirkung, fragt Hans Luther nach. Röpke antwortet: „Die Ursache liegt zweifellos in dem Bestreben der Unternehmer, sich jeglicher Neuinvestition zu enthalten, nicht einmal den notwendigen Erneuerungsbedarf zu befriedigen und das Gleichgewicht auf immer tieferem Niveau zu finden.“

Auf der Konferenz ist wiederholt Thema, ob überhaupt der richtige Zeitpunkt für einen möglichen Aufschwung gekommen sei. Damals wurde davon ausgegangen, dass in einer deflationären Wirtschaftskrise ein natürlicher Abschwung so lange erfolgen müsse, bis möglichst am Tiefpunkt der Krise konjunkturbelebende Maßnahmen überhaupt wirkten – zu früh würden sie wirkungslos verpuffen, wird von einigen Konferenzteilnehmern befürchtet. Befürchtungen stehen immer wieder im Raum, wie das Ausland auf kreditfinanzierte Staatsausgaben reagieren wird – inwieweit weiteres Auslandskapital abgezogen und inwieweit stillhaltende Gläubiger (Basler Stillhalteabkommen vom August 1931) Zustimmung geben würden.

Die Konferenzteilnehmer einigen sich auf den finanziellen Rahmen von zumindest benötigten 1,5 Mrd. Reichsmark zu Konjunkturprogrammen, wobei die Teilnehmer übereinstimmten, dass die Kreditsumme nur allmählich, nur behutsam in die Wirtschaft zu investieren sei und keinesfalls die Öffentlichkeit über den Kreditausweitungsplan informiert werden solle, um die latent vorhandene Inflationsangst der deutschen Bevölkerung aus 1923 keinesfalls zu schüren (Fachpresse wie Wirtschaftsexperten gingen damals grundsätzlich von Inflation bei Kreditausweitung auch während deflationärer Entwicklungen aus).

Reichsbankpräsident Luther spricht auf der Konferenz mehrmals die eingeschränkten Möglichkeiten der Reichsbank zu Kreditvergaben an – ob einer Reichsbankzusage trifft er auf der Konferenz keine Entscheidung.

Hans Luther wagte es nicht, den Reichsbankkredit aufgrund der bereits unterdeckten Währung weiter auszuweiten (meist wird ihm Inflationsangst unterstellt, die er lt. Protokoll nicht aufwies) cheap running belt. Eine Kreditausweitung hätte der Zustimmung der ausländischen Gläubiger sowie der internationalen Zentralbanken bedurft. Das Kabinett Brüning billigte den Lautenbach-Plan, wusste jedoch nicht diesen zu finanzieren. Kurzfristig gab es die Idee einer Anleihe. Die Ministerien arbeiteten dennoch ihre Konjunkturprogramme aus, die in Summe mit 1–1,5 Mrd. veranschlagt waren handheld running water bottle. Erst die Regierung unter Papen, die die von Brüning vorbereiteten Verhandlungen (9. Juli 1932 wurden auf der Konferenz von Lausanne die Reparationsverpflichtungen gestrichen) erfolgreich abschließen konnte, setzte konjunkturbelebende Maßnahmen um (Papen-Plan).

Équations de Faddeev

La mise en forme du texte ne suit pas les recommandations de Wikipédia : il faut le « wikifier ».

La typographie steak tenderiser marinade, les liens internes ou externes, les conventions de style, la présentation des sources, etc. sont autant de points qui peuvent ne pas convenir voire être absents. Si seules certaines sections de l’article sont à wikifier meat tenderization, pensez à les indiquer en utilisant {{section à wikifier}}.

Les équations de Faddeev, nommées d’après leur inventeur Ludvig Faddeev phone pouch for running, sont des équations qui décrivent à la fois tous les échanges / interactions possibles dans un système de trois particules dans une formulation mécanique entièrement quantique. Ils peuvent être résolus itérativement.

En général, les équations de Faddeev ont besoin d’un potentiel qui décrit l’interaction entre deux particules individuelles. Il est également possible d’introduire un terme dans l’équation afin de prendre en compte également les forces à trois corps.

Les équations de Faddeev sont les formulations non perturbatives les plus fréquemment utilisées du problème à trois corps quantique-mécanique. Contrairement au problème de trois corps dans la mécanique classique, le problème du corps quantique trois est uniformément soluble.

En physique nucléaire, l’interaction nucléon-nucléon de l’énergie nucléaire a été étudiée en analysant (n, 2n) et (p, 2p) des réactions sur des cibles de deutérium, en utilisant les équations de Faddeev. L’interaction nucléon-nucléon est élargie (approximée) en tant que série de potentiels séparables. L’interaction Coulomb entre deux protons est un problème particulier, en ce sens que son expansion dans les potentiels séparables ne converge pas, mais cela se fait en combinant les solutions Faddeev aux solutions coulomb à longue portée, au lieu des ondes planes.

Les potentiels séparables sont des interactions qui ne conservent pas l’emplacement d’une particule. Les potentiels locaux ordinaires peuvent être exprimés sous forme de potentiels séparables. L’interaction physique nucleon-nucléon, qui implique l’échange de mésons, ne devrait pas être locale ou séparable

Huset Stuart

Huset Stuart eller Stewart var et skotsk, og senere britisk, fyrstehus af normannisk ophav. Navnet stammer fra den gamle skotske titel High Steward. Maria Stuart tog den franske skrivemåde Stuart i brug, da hun boede i Frankrig.

Huset Stuart herskede i Skotland i 336 år, fra 1371 til 1707. Efter at Elisabeth 1. af England, den sidste monark fra huset Tudor, døde, kom huset Stuart på tronen også i England og Irland, og styrede de tre kongeriger i personalunion mellem 1603 og 1707. I denne periode kaldte herskerne af huset Stuart sig for konger og dronninger af Storbritannien, selvom en stat med dette navn endnu ikke eksisterede best running waist pack. Dronning Anne var den første monark, som herskede over et forenet Storbritannien, fra 1707 til sin død i 1714. Efter hendes død blev huset Stuart efterfulgt af huset Hannover på tronen.


Velika Bobija (berg i Bosnien och Hercegovina)

Velika Bobija är ett berg i Bosnien och Hercegovina. Det ligger i entiteten Federationen Bosnien och Hercegovina, i den västra delen av landet

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Terrängen runt Velika Bobija är lite bergig. Den högsta punkten i närheten är Velika Javornjača, 1 456 meter över havet, 5,8 km söder om Velika Bobija. Närmaste större samhälle är Sanica

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, 15,2 km sydost om Velika Bobija. I trakten runt Velika Bobija finns ovanligt många namngivna grottor, vattenkällor och klippformationer.

I omgivningarna runt Velika Bobija växer i huvudsak blandskog empty water bottles. Runt Velika Bobija är det ganska tätbefolkat, med 93 invånare per kvadratkilometer. Årsmedeltemperaturen i trakten är 9 °C. Den varmaste månaden är juli, då medeltemperaturen är 18 °C, och den kallaste är december, med -3 °C. Genomsnittlig årsnederbörd är 1 641 millimeter. Den regnigaste månaden är september, med i genomsnitt 201 mm nederbörd, och den torraste är juni, med 94 mm nederbörd.

Oscar Isaac

Oscar Isaac est un acteur et chanteur américain d’origine guatémaltèque, né le au Guatemala.

Oscar Isaac Hernandez Estrada est né au Guatemala d’une mère guatémaltèque Maria Eugenia Estrada Nicolle et d’un père cubain Óscar Gonzalo Hernández-Cano, pneumologue. Il a grandi à Miami, en Floride.

Après avoir terminé ses études à la Juilliard School en 2005, il tourne dans plusieurs films d’envergure internationale. Il avait déjà eu un petit rôle dans Chasseurs de primes. Il incarne Joseph auprès de Keisha Castle-Hughes dans La Nativité, sous la direction de Catherine Hardwicke, puis joue dans Pu-239, également sorti en 2006.

Il tourne pour la première fois sous la direction d’un grand cinéaste hollywoodien. Steven Soderbergh lui confie en effet un petit rôle dans Che, sorti en 2008. La même année, il fait partie de la distribution du thriller d’espionnage Mensonges d’État, réalisé par Ridley Scott, et mené par les stars Russell Crowe et Leonardo DiCaprio.

En 2009, il est à l’affiche de deux productions étrangères : la co-production européenne Agora, écrite et réalisée par l’espagnol Alejandro Amenábar, où il prête ses traits au préfet d’Alexandrie Oreste, et donne la réplique à l’actrice britannique oscarisée, Rachel Weisz. Il enchaîne avec le thriller australien Conspiration, écrit et réalisé par Robert Connolly.

Il revient l’année d’après aux productions hollywoodiennes : d’abord pour Ridley Scott, qui lui fait confiance pour un rôle de premier plan : celui de Jean sans terre pour le remake Robin des Bois.

En 2011, il participe à deux productions ambitieuses et ambiguës: en incarnant d’abord Blue Jones, dans la fresque fantastique Sucker Punch, écrite et réalisée par Zack Snyder. Il interprète aussi la chanson du générique de fin running water bottle handheld, Love is a drug, en duo avec sa partenaire à l’écran, Carla Gugino. Puis en participant ensuite au thriller néo-noir Drive de Nicolas Winding Refn.

Après une poignée de films mineurs, Cristeros, sorti en 2011, ou Revenge for Jolly!, sorti en 2012, il participe au blockbuster d’espionnage Jason Bourne : L’Héritage, de Tony Gilroy. Il tourne la même année Thérèse Raquin de Charlie Stratton, adaptation de l’œuvre éponyme d’Emile Zola. Il y incarne Laurent, la moitié masculine du couple maudit.

En 2013 bpa free stainless steel water bottle, il confirme enfin avec Llewyn Davis dans la comédie dramatique, écrite et réalisée par les frères Coen, Inside Llewyn Davis, où il livre une prestation largement saluée par la critique, notamment nord-américaine, qui lui décerne plusieurs prix. L’acteur obtient également une nomination au Golden Globe du meilleur acteur. La même année, il est l’affiche de The Two Faces of January, de Hossein Amini, où il évolue aux côtés de Viggo Mortensen et Kirsten Dunst.

En 2014, il partage l’affiche du thriller A Most Violent Year de J.C. Chandor, avec la star Jessica Chastain. En 2015, il livre une prestation habitée et inquiétante dans le thriller de science-fiction, Ex machina d’Alex Garland. Les deux œuvres sont saluées par une poignée de nominations et de récompenses.

Il s’aventure aussi du côté de la télévision, en tenant le rôle principal de Show Me a Hero, une nouvelle mini-série à base historique de David Simon (Sur écoute best water thermos, Treme) en incarnant Nick Wasicsko, maire éphémère de Yonkers à la fin des années 1980. Sa performance est récompensée par un Golden Globe du meilleur acteur dans une mini-série en 2016.

Ces différents succès critiques sont suivis des tournages de blockbusters comme X-Men: Apocalypse, de Bryan Singer, où il incarnera le rôle-titre, et principal antagoniste, le mutant En Sabah Nur / Apocalypse water bottle for jogging. Avant cela, il se distingue à la fin de l’année 2015 dans le gros succès commercial au niveau mondial Star Wars, épisode VII : Le Réveil de la Force, de J. J. Abrams. Il y interprète Poe Dameron, un pilote de la Résistance, rôle qu’il reprend dans Star Wars, épisode VIII : Les Derniers Jedi dont la sortie a lieu en décembre 2017.

En France, Oscar Isaac est doublé par plusieurs comédiens. Parmi les plus fréquents, il y a Benjamin Penamaria qui l’a doublé dans quatre films et une série, Axel Kiener dans trois films ou encore Jonathan Cohen qui l’a doublé à deux reprises.

Au Québec, Nicolas Charbonneaux-Collombet est la voix française régulière de l’acteur.

Ligue majeure de water-polo féminin

La Ligue majeure de water-polo (Water Polo Major League en anglais) est un des principaux championnats du Canada de water-polo féminin depuis 2009. Elle est organisée par Water Polo Canada pour les joueuses dans un objectif de formation aux compétitions internationales&nbsp touch football uniforms;; à ce titre, la Ligue majeure se distingue des Championnats canadiens des clubs organisés depuis 1907.

Une saison se déroule en deux phases meat cuber tenderizer. La « saison régulière » regroupe en équipes par division provinciale : une pour les équipes de l’Ontario et une pour le Québec. Chaque équipe affronte à plusieurs reprises toutes les équipes de sa division, ainsi qu’une fois les équipes de l’autre division.

Le vainqueur de chaque division se qualifie pour les « séries finales » avec les deux meilleures équipes du classement général établi toutes divisions confondues. Les quatre équipes jouent une finale à quatre.

La compétition a pour objectif de faire participer des clubs de l’ensemble du Canada. L’organisation en division géographique permet d’intégrer le nombre variable de participants&nbsp running belts reviews;: le cas n’est jamais arrivé reusable glass bottles, mais une équipe hors division pourrait participer et jouerait sa qualification selon ses résultats contre les équipes des divisions établies.

Hardwick (Vermont)

Hardwick ist eine Town im Caledonia County des Bundesstaates Vermont in den Vereinigten Staaten mit 3010 Einwohnern (laut Volkszählung des Jahres 2010).

Hardwick liegt im Westen des Caledonia Countys, etwa 55 Kilometer südlich der kanadischen Grenze und grenzt an das Lamoille County, das Orleans County und das Washington County. Die Lage im Nordosten der Green Mountains hat zur Folge, dass die Oberfläche der Town hügelig ist. Die höchste Erhebung ist der 565 m hohe Jeudevine Mountain. Viele kleinere Bäche und Flüsse entwässern die Town sie münden im Lamoille River. Es gibt mehrere Seen auf dem Gebiet der Town, der Größte ist der Hardwick Lake im Zentrum des Gebietes.

Alle Entfernungen sind als Luftlinien zwischen den offiziellen Koordinaten der Orte aus der Volkszählung 2010 angegeben.

In der Gemeinde gibt es drei Siedlungskerne: Hardwick, East Hardwick und North Hardwick stainless steel water bottle; letzterer hat in seiner Bedeutung inzwischen stark nachgelassen und ist kaum noch als Siedlungskern zu erkennen.

Die mittlere Durchschnittstemperatur in Hardwick liegt zwischen -9,44°C (15° Fahrenheit) im Januar und 20,0°C (68° Fahrenheit) im Juli. Damit ist der Ort gegenüber dem langjährigen Mittel der USA um etwa 9 Grad kühler. Die Schneefälle zwischen Mitte Oktober und Mitte Mai liegen mit mehr als zwei Metern etwa doppelt so hoch wie die mittlere Schneehöhe in den USA. Die tägliche Sonnenscheindauer liegt am unteren Rand des Wertespektrums der USA, zwischen September und Mitte Dezember sogar deutlich darunter.

Der Grant für Hardwick wurde am 7. November 1780 ausgerufen. Festgesetzt wurde er am 19. August 1781 zugunsten von Danforth Keyes und weiteren, in der üblichen Größe von 23.040 Acre. Unmittelbar nach der Festsetzung des Grants gab es den Versuch einer Besiedlung, der aber scheiterte. Eine permanente Besiedlung startete im Jahr 1790. 1795 fand die konstituierende Versammlung der Town statt.

Der Name „Hardwick“ wurde vom Heimatort vieler Siedler übernommen: Hardwick in Massachusetts. Im Lauf der Siedlungsgeschichte haben drei Orte des Countys diesen Namen (sprich: diese Postanschrift) getragen. Die Eröffnung des ersten Postamts dieses Namens fand 1810 im heutigen East Hardwick statt, das sich damals aber „Stevensville“ nannte. Das Postamt wechselte 1846 den Namen, aber mit einem Schreibfehler: „Setphens“. Nach drei Monaten wurde das Postamt zurück auf „Hardwick“ benannt beef tenderizer recipe. Bis 1867 wechselten die Bezeichnung des Ortes und des Postamtes mehrfach zwischen „Hardwick“ und „East Hardwick“, welches als letzter Name seither bestehen blieb. 1864 hatte dann das Postamt im heutigen North Hardwick den Namen „Hardwick“ angenommen, der aber 1867 mit der Schließung des Postamtes von einem dritten Ort im Umkreis, dem damaligen South Harwick (bis 1842: Lamoilleville), übernommen wurde. Seither ist diese Siedlung der offizielle Träger des Namens.

Die Bewohner von Hartwick ernähren sich hauptsächlich von Land- und Forstwirtschaft; bis etwa 1910 war es zusätzlich für seine Granitproduktion bekannt.

In Hardwick sind eine Reihe von Kirchengemeinden angesiedelt: es gibt zwei Gemeinden der United Church of Christ, je eine der Assemblies of God, der episkopalen Kirche, der römisch-katholischen Kirche und der Methodisten. Außerdem ist eine ungebundene Gemeinde, die Promised Land Ministries, tätig.

Die Vermont State Route 14 verläuft in nordsüdlicher Richtung durch den westlichen Teil der Town. Sie Verbindet Hartwick mit Craftsbury im Norden und Woodbury im Süden. Ebenfalls aus nördlicher Richtung, aus Glover kommend, verläuft die Vermont State Route 16 durch den östlichen Teil der Town. Sie mündet auf die in westöstlicher Richtung, von Wolcott im Westen, nach Walden im Osten verlaufende Vermont State Route 15.

In Hardwick seit 1889 ansässig ist die The Hardwick Gazette, eine wöchentlich immer am Mittwoch erscheinende Zeitung für die Gemeinden Hardwick, Greensboro, Craftsbury, Wolcott, Walden, Stannard, Woodbury, Calais, Cabot und Marshfield.

Es gibt in Hardwick kein Krankenhaus. Das nächstgelegene ist das Copley Hospital in Morrisville.

Hardwick gehört mit Stannard, Craftsbury und Greensboro im Orleans County, Wolcott im Lamoille County und Woodbury im Washington County zur Orleans Southwest Supervisory Union. In Hardwick befindet sich die Hardwick Elementary School. Sie bietet für 260 Schulkinder Klassen von Kindergarten bis zum sechsten Schuljahr. Die Hazen Union High School in Hardwick betreut etwa 350 Schülerinnen und Schüler von der siebten bis zum Abschluss der High School in der zwölften Klasse.

Die Jeudevine Memorial Library wurde von Malvina M. Jeudevine in Erinnerung an ihren Mann, dem Kaufmann und Politiker Alden Jeudevine und dem gemeinsamen Sohn Cornelius Jeudevine gestiftet.

Um die Bewahrung der Geschichte kümmert sich die Hardwick Historical Society.

Barnet | Burke | Danville | Groton | Hardwick | Kirby | Lyndon | Newark | Peacham | Ryegate | Sheffield | St. Johnsbury | Stannard | Sutton | Walden | Waterford | Wheelock

Lyndonville | West Burke

Barnet (CDP) | Danville (CDP) | East Burke (CDP) | Groton (CDP) | Hardwick (CDP) | St. Johnsbury (CDP)

East Hardwick | East Ryegate | Lower Waterford | Lyndon Center | McIndoe Falls | Passumpsic | Danville

The Ice-Maiden

The Ice-Maiden” (“Iisjomfruen”, or “Isjomfruen” in contemporary Danish) is an 1861 fairy tale (short story) by the Danish writer, Hans Christian Andersen. The first English translation was published by King and Baird in 1863.

In “The Ice-Maiden”, written towards the end of his career, Hans Christian Andersen tells the tale of Rudy, a boy who lost both his parents and goes to live with his uncle. The reader is first introduced to Rudy as he sells toy houses made by his grandfather. Rudy grows up to become a skilled mountain climber and huntsman. He has fallen in love with the miller’s daughter, Babette, however the miller does not approve of the union and gives Rudy the impossible task of climbing to the top of a dangerous mountain and bringing back a live baby eaglet. While Babette was off visiting her godmother exercise fanny pack, she caught the attention of her cousin and flirted with him, which reveals in Rudy a growing jealousy. When Rudy finds the cousin climbing up a tree into Babette’s window, Babette is enraged that Rudy is yelling at her cousin and tells him to leave. On his way home, Rudy comes across a beautiful maiden who has appeared in his life before. It’s the Ice Maiden, who killed his mother and marked him as her own when he was a baby. He is angry at Babette and soon finds himself kissing the Ice Maiden. Rudy goes back to Babette and begs for her forgiveness. Their wedding day is near and they travel to the godmother’s house to be wed at a church nearby. The night after their arrival Babette has an awful dream that she cheats on Rudy with her cousin. One night before the wedding, Babette decides she wants to go to a small island with just enough room for the two of them to dance. As they sit and talk together handphone pouch for running, Babette notices the boat is slipping away. Rudy dives into the water after it but the Ice Maiden kisses him one last time and he drowns. Babette is left alone on the island crying over the death of her loved one, but nobody can hear her over the storm.

Honourable Artillery Company

The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII and is considered one of the oldest military organisations in the world. Today, it is a registered charity whose purpose is to attend to the “better defence of the realm”, this purpose is primarily achieved by the support of the HAC Regiment and a detachment of Special Constabulary to the City of London Police. The word “artillery” in “Honourable Artillery Company” does not have the current meaning that is generally associated with it, but dates from a time when in the English language that word meant any projectile, including for example arrows shot from a bow. The equivalent form of words in modern English would be either “Honourable Infantry Company” or “Honourable Military Company”.

In the 17th century, its members played a significant part in the formation of both the Royal Marines and the Grenadier Guards. More recently, regiments, battalions and batteries of the Company fought with distinction in both World Wars and its current Regiment, which forms part of the Army Reserve, is the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior in the Army Reserve. Members of the Regiment and Specials are drawn, for the most part, from young men and women working in and around the City and Greater London. Those leaving the active units may become Veteran Members and remain within the fraternity of the Company.

The HAC can trace its history back as far as 1087, but it received a Royal Charter from Henry VIII on 25 August 1537, when Letters Patent were received by the Overseers of the Fraternity or Guild of St George authorising them to establish a perpetual corporation for the defence of the realm to be known as the Fraternity or Guild of Artillery of Longbows, Crossbows and Handgonnes. This body was known by a variety of names until 1658, when it was first referred to as the Artillery Company. It was first referred to as the Honourable Artillery Company in 1685 and officially received the name from Queen Victoria in 1860. However, the Archers’ Company of the Honourable Artillery Company was retained into the late 19th century, though as a private club. Founded in 1781 by Sir Ashton Lever, it met at Archers’ Hall, Inner Circle, Regent’s Park, London. The Archers’ Company remained a part of the regiment operated from 1784 to the late 1790s, along with Matross, Grenadier (established on 11 August 1686) and Light Infantry companies/divisions, with a Rifle or Jaeger Company introduced around 1803.

The regiment has the rare distinction of having fought on the side of both Parliament and the Royalists during the English Civil War 1642 to 1649.

From its formation, the company trained at a site it had occupied at the Old Artillery Ground in Spitalfields and at The Merchant Taylors’ Company Hall. In 1622, the company built its first Armoury House at the site of the Old Artillery Gardens.

In 1638, Sir Maurice Abbot granted the company use of lands at its current site south of Bunhill Fields Burial Ground on City Road, which in 1649 consisted of twelve acres enclosed by a brick wall and pale. In 1657, it sold its old Armoury House in Spitalfield to Master Gunner Richard Woolaston for £300.

In 1656, the Grenadier Guards were formed from gentlemen of the Honourable Artillery Company who had taken the then heir to the throne, Prince Charles (later Charles II), to Europe for his safety during the English Civil War.

In 28 October 1664, in the New Artillery Gardens, the body of men that would become the Royal Marines was first formed with an initial strength of 1,200 infantrymen recruited from the Trained Bands of London as part of the mobilisation for the Second Anglo-Dutch War. James (later King James VII & II), the Duke of York and Albany, Lord High Admiral and brother of King Charles II, was Captain-General of the Honourable Artillery Company, the unit that trained the Trained Bands.

The Company served in Broadgate during the Gordon Riots of 1780 and in gratitude for its role in restoring order to the City, the Corporation of London presented “two brass field-pieces”, which led to the creation of an HAC Artillery Division. (These guns are on display in the entrance hall of Armoury House.)

In 1860, control of the Company moved from the Home Office to the War Office and in 1889, a Royal Warrant gave the Secretary of State for War control of the Company’s military affairs. In 1883, Queen Victoria decreed that the HAC took precedence next after the Regular Forces and therefore before the Militia and Yeomanry in consideration of its antiquity.

Members of the Company first served as a formed unit overseas in the South African War (1899–1902). Almost two hundred members served; the majority in the City of London Imperial Volunteers (CIV) as infantry, mounted infantry and in a Field Battery that was officered, and for the most part manned, by members of the Company.

In 1907, the Company became part of the newly formed Territorial Force with the passing of the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act. The HAC Infantry was due to become part of the newly formed London Regiment as the “26th (County of London) Battalion” but instead managed to retain its own identity as the Honourable Artillery Company Infantry Battalion. The HAC also had its property and privileges protected by the Honourable Artillery Company Act 1908.

The HAC expanded to three infantry battalions and seven artillery batteries during the First World War. Second Lieutenants Reginald Leonard Haine and Alfred Oliver Pollard, of the 1st Battalion HAC, were awarded Victoria Crosses for their actions at Gavrelle in 1917. In total 1,650 men from the HAC were killed during the war.

In September 1914, the 1st Battalion followed the British Expeditionary Force to France and fought in the 1st Battle of Ypres. After the fighting at the Battle of the Ancre in 1916 and the Battle of Arras in 1917, it became an officer training battalion and provided demonstration platoons. Elements of the battalion were used to help quell the Étaples Mutiny. The 2nd Battalion HAC was raised in August 1914; it was in France by October 1916 and in action on 25 February 1917 at Bucquoy. They fought at the Battle of Arras in May and the 3rd Battle of Ypres in October. In November 1917, the battalion moved to the Italian Front under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Richard O’Connor. In the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, in October 1918, they led a force of Italians, Americans and British that compelled the garrison of the strategic island of Papadopoli (in the main channel of the River Piave) to surrender. For this remarkable feat of arms, the HAC was awarded two Distinguished Service Orders, five Military Crosses, three Distinguished Conduct Medals and 29 Military Medals.

Both A Battery and B Battery went to Suez in April 1915. In July, B Battery fought in the recapture of Sheikh Othman (key to the water supply to Aden) from the Turks as part of the Aden campaign. In February 1917, both batteries took part in the Palestine Campaign, were in action at the First and Second Battle of Gaza and entered Jerusalem in December 1917. In the German counter-attack during the Second action of Es Salt on 1 May 1918, A Battery was forced to make a rapid withdrawal under heavy fire, which resulted in the loss of all its guns. Both A and B Batteries took part in the Battle of Megiddo in September.

The 2nd Line batteries – 2/A Battery and 2/B Battery – were formed in 1914 and served on the Western Front in 1917 and 1918 as part of an Army Field Artillery Brigade; the 3rd Line batteries – A (Reserve) Battery and B (Reserve) Battery – were formed in 1915 to provide trained replacements for the 1st and 2nd Line batteries.

A seventh battery, the 309th (HAC) Siege Battery RGA, went to France in April 1917 and saw action at the Battle of Messines and the Battle of Amiens.

In 1919, Lt-Col Edward Lisle Strutt commanded a detachment of HAC soldiers that escorted the family of Charles I, the last Austro-Hungarian Emperor-King, to safety in Switzerland in 1919, after having served as the family’s protector at Eckartsau on the personal initiative of King George V.

When the Territorial Force was reconstituted as the Territorial Army (TA) in 1920, the HAC infantry battalion was reformed, while A and B Batteries formed a composite RHA unit with the City of London Yeomanry (Rough Riders) (one battery) as 11th (HAC and City of London Yeomanry) Brigade, RHA. The TA began to expand rapidly at the time of the Munich Crisis in 1938, and the Yeomanry left to form a separate light anti-aircraft regiment leaving 11th Regiment RHA (HAC). Subsequently, the HAC formed the 12th (1939) and 13th Regiments RHA (HAC) (1940) and the 86th (HAC) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment (1939).

In 1939, the Infantry Battalion became 162 (HAC) Officer Cadet Training Unit, this was the Officer Training Unit of the Reconnaissance Corps. In 1942, 101 RAC OCTU amalgamated with 162 Reconnaissance Corps OCTU to form 100 RAC OCTU based at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.

The 11th (HAC) Regiment, RHA, served in North Africa at the Battle of Knightsbridge with 25-pounder guns and, after re-equipping with the M7 Priest self-propelled gun, in the Second Battle of El Alamein. The regiment’s guns were the first guns ashore in the invasion of Sicily; then they took part in the Allied invasion of Italy and the Italian Campaign.

The 12th (HAC) Regiment, RHA, took part in the Operation Torch landings and were in action at Thala in February 1943, where they halted a German advance following the Battle of the Kasserine Pass. After re-equipping with Priests, they too moved on to Italy in March 1944 and fought at Monte Cassino.

The 13th (HAC) Regiment, RHA, (equipped with Sexton self-propelled guns) fought in Normandy, the Netherlands and across the Rhine into Germany as part of 11th Armoured Division.

The regiment formed part of 26th (London) Anti-Aircraft Brigade defending the London Inner Artillery Zone. Anti-Aircraft Command mobilised on 24 August 1939 best running phone holder, and so 86th (HAC) HAA Rgt was already manning static gunsites at places like Primrose Hill and Finsbury Park when war was declared on 3 September refillable water bottle. The regiment served in the defence of the capital throughout The Blitz. It became a mobile unit in 1942 and was one of the first units to land on D-Day, with Regimental Headquarters commanding a composite AA Assault Group on Juno Beach. During the Normandy Campaign and subsequent advance into Belgium the regiment’s 3.7-inch HAA guns were sometimes used to engage ground targets. During the winter of 1944–45 its guns and radar defended Brussels and Antwerp against V-1 flying bombs (known as ‘Divers’).

Over seven hundred members of the Company lost their lives during the Second World War.

In 1947, the Company was reorganised into:

In 1973, the Regiment was again reorganised; it was given the role of providing ‘Stay Behind’ Observation Posts (OPs) for the British Army of the Rhine as one of the three Territorial Army units making up the Corps Patrol Unit (with 21 and 23 SAS). The new structure was:

In 1994, the signals troops that had been integrated into the patrol squadrons were brought together to form the Signal Squadron (they were subsequently re-integrated with the patrol squadrons in 2010).

In 1992, the signals troops that had been integrated into the patrol squadrons were brought together to form the Signal Squadron; they were subsequently re-integrated with the patrol squadrons in 2010.   In 1992, on Salisbury Plain, the HAC was the last British Army unit to fire the twenty-five pounder in the field, as the Gun Troop retrained onto the 105mm Light Gun. The 25 pounder continued to be fired ceremonially until replaced by the Light Gun.

In 1996, the first formed unit of the Regiment to be mobilised for active service since the Second World War was called up for Operation Resolute with the NATO IFOR in Bosnia.

The Regiment participated in the celebration of HM The Queen’s Golden Jubilee on 4 June 2002 by firing a 62 gun salute at the Tower of London, and by providing a Guard of Honour (including the Regimental Band and the Massed Corps of Drums of the 1st Bn Grenadier Guards and the HAC) at St Paul’s Cathedral. In December of that year, the Captain General visited and dined with the company to commemorate her Golden Jubilee as Captain General.

In 2005, the guns were withdrawn from Gun Troop, which was renamed Liaison Troop.

In 2006, the HAC was the first major unit of the Territorial Army to convert to the Bowman communications system. When Bowman was withdrawn from the Territorial Army in 2008/9, it was one of the few units to retain the equipment.

In 2016, Queen Elizabeth II became the longest serving Captain-General of the HAC, with 64 years of service.

In 2017 a new battery, A Battery (1st City of London) Honourable Artillery Company, was formed to provide parachute gunners in support of 7 RHA.

The HAC Regiment is a unit of the Army Reserve based just north of the City of London, providing a squadron of STA patrols and two squadrons in the Light STA role. The role of an STA Patrol, which comprises a team of four/six specialist soldiers, is to conduct static covert surveillance at long range and in close proximity to the enemy. The patrols are trained and equipped both to collect highly granular information and intelligence and to deliver joint effects at range; be they kinetic (all patrols contain personnel trained in the delivery of precision and indirect fires) or non-kinetic. A pre-requisite of service in the Patrols is successful completion of the STA Patrol Course and qualification as a Special Observer. Training emphasises mental and physical resilience and a high premium is placed on well developed self-reliance and self-discipline. Patrols are trained with a variety of skills to mitigate the dangers of operating in a high risk environment and/or isolated circumstances. Unlike most Army Reserve units, who are only required to train at up to sub-unit (company or squadron) level, the HAC is required to train as a regiment.

The HAC has a ceremonial role in providing guards of honour at the Guildhall in the City of London during state visits and, since 1924 (when the Royal Artillery ceased to be stationed at the Tower), has provided the saluting battery at the Tower of London for state occasions. Due to the demanding requirements of their role, the HAC is privileged to be one of only a small number of Army Reserve units with responsibility for the carrying out portions of Phase 1 (recruits) and 2 training of its own soldiers ‘in house’. The recruits course comprises six HAC-only weekends, followed by a two-week camp with other reserve soldiers at an Army Training Unit (usually Pirbright).

The HAC is not part of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, being an older and separate regiment with its own uniform, insignia and colours. Operationally, the regiment forms part of 1st Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade. The sub units of the HAC are:

The Regiment has had individuals or sub-units on active service at all times since 1996; with the personnel serving in a wide variety of roles in Northern Ireland, Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq, Afghanistan and various countries in Africa. Commitments included the deployment of individuals to HUMINT roles in the Balkans (including as part of Joint Commission Observer teams) and then formed patrols to Bosnia, Kosovo and Iraq; independent sub-units to Operation Telic 4 and 5 in Iraq and L Troop to Operation Telic 9; as well as individual and group reinforcements to other infantry and artillery units. In recent times, the rate of deployment, generally in groups of 10, has speeded up dramatically. These groups are divided between operating and maintaining anti-mortar systems and other high technology equipment and forming part of the Brigade Reconnaissance Force (BRF).

On Tuesday 4 December 2007, Trooper Jack Sadler, who was serving with the BRF, was killed when his vehicle was hit by a blast north of Sangin, in Helmand province. Two other soldiers were injured in the attack. In 2008, the Runner-up for the Cobra Trophy for Volunteer Reservist of the year was Trooper Adam Cocks of 2 Squadron HAC, who was severely injured in Afghanistan when his vehicle struck a mine. While recuperating at Headley Court rehabilitation centre, he and a friend came up with the idea of a rugby match at Twickenham to help raise money for the charity Help for Heroes.

The non-commissioned ranks of the HAC are as follows

In 1830, King William IV ordered that the uniform of the HAC should be based on that of the Grenadier Guards, except that where the Grenadiers wear gold, the HAC were to wear silver. This tradition is continued today by the wearing of the silver coloured grenade in the forage cap similar to the brass one of the Grenadiers, and the buttons and lace on HAC dress uniforms being silver coloured instead of gold.

The HAC wear the same khaki beret as the Footguards, but with the HAC’s own cap badge (“short arms”) in white metal on a black backing. Officers and Warrant Officers wear an embroidered cloth version of the same badge. The Corps of Drums and Regimental Band wear the HAC infantry grenade on a blue red blue backing, which is superficially identical to that of the Grenadier Guards. From July 2008, members of 4/73 (Sphinx) Special OP Battery, the HAC’s regular ‘sister’ unit, adopted the khaki beret to mark their close working relationship.

HAC Gunner Badge worn by Officers in No 1 Dress (Gunner) on Artillery ceremonial duties

Officer’s and Warrant Officer’s beret badge

other ranks Beret badge

Officer’s forage cap badge (Infantry)

Grenade worn by SNCOs of all sub units in forage cap, and Band and Drums in the beret

Grenade worn by ranks below Sergeant in the forage cap, and by the Band and Corps of Drums in the beret

On the forage cap, the HAC infantry grenade (white metal) is worn by junior ranks of all subunits of the regiment. Sergeants and Warrant Officers wear a different version of the grenade, which has the letters HAC in brass on the ball of the grenade. Officers wear an embroidered silver grenade on their forage caps in No 1 Dress (Infantry) and on the Service Dress forage cap but when in No 1 Dress (Gunner) they wear the HAC Artillery cap badge. The latter is similar to that of the Royal Artillery but with “HAC” and “Arma Pacis Fulcra” replacing “Ubique” and “Quo Fas et Gloria Ducunt”. In Full Dress (normally only worn by the Band and Corps of Drums), the Bearskin is worn without a plume.

In No 2 dress, Soldiers wear the larger Foot Guards badges of rank and qualification. Lance Corporals wear two chevrons and Lance Sergeants three. In Full Dress and Number 1 dress, WO2’s wear a large colour badge of the same pattern as the Grenadier Guards, but in silver rather than gold. Officers’ crowns and stars are of the same pattern as those of the Grenadiers (Order of the Garter), woven for combat uniforms but in silver for Service and Barrack Dress.

Each Squadron wears a different stable belt:

(RHQ, HQ squadron, and Band)

(1 squadron)

(2 squadron)

(3 squadron)

(Training Wing)

(Corps of Drums)

In 1906, King Edward VII gave the HAC the distinction of a special ribbon for the Volunteer Officers’ Decoration and Volunteer Long Service Medal. The ribbon, based on The King’s personal colours (in turn taken from the Royal Standard), is red and blue edged with narrow yellow stripes. This ribbon has been carried forward to subsequent Territorial long service medals awarded to HAC members.

B Battery HAC supported the 10th Hussars during the Second World War and, in 1972, the Captain General approved the Battery wearing a 10th Hussar button as the top button on Numbers 1, 2 and 10 dress. This privilege is carried on by 2 Squadron following the 1973 re-organisation.

Each year the Captain General awards a prize to the member of the Regiment who is deemed to have made an outstanding contribution to the Regiment. Holders of this prize, known as the King’s or Queen’s Prize wear a badge incorporating the Captain General’s cypher and the year of award on Numbers 1, 2 and 10 (Mess) Dress.

The coat of arms of the company is a Shield of Arms, helm, mantling and crest with as supporters a Pikeman and a Musketeer and the motto ‘Arma Pacis Fulcra’, Unlike other regiments of the British Army, the HAC is incorporated and is therefore eligible to bear and use a Coat of arms. It is believed to date from circa 1615 and the coat of arms appears on a military manual published in 1629.

The regiment’s battle hours are as follows:

The battle honours listed were awarded for services of both infantry and artillery units of the HAC. Those in bold are borne on the Colours.

The HAC is unique within the British Army in having two types of Colours. The HAC has its ceremonial Guns (which are considered Colours in Artillery regiments), but also carries a stand of traditional Colours of the Infantry. These Colours follow the pattern of line infantry regiments: the Queen’s Colour being a version of the Union Flag, the Regimental Colour being blue with the HAC Coat of Arms in the centre. The last four occasions that new Colours have been presented to the Regiment were in 1928 by Edward, Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII), and in 1955, 1980 and on 18 May 2007 by HM Queen Elizabeth II, the regiment’s Captain General.

In 1919, following a decision to increase the strength of the Metropolitan Police Reserve Force, the Home Secretary approached the HAC to form a Division of Special Constabulary. Some 150 members, mostly Great War veterans, rallied to the call and joined the Division, forming the HAC Detachment. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Detachment was integrated into G Division of the Metropolitan Police and then later with Islington Division. Following reorganisation, the Detachment is now part of the City of London Police Special Constabulary, its administrative base is Armoury House.

In 2010, the Ferrers Trophy was awarded to Special Constable Patrick Rarden of the detachment for using his banking skills and experience to help train colleagues and provide invaluable assistance to solve fraud cases.

As well as the Territorial Army Regiment and Specials (the “Active Units”), the HAC exists as a separate charitable organisation—often colloquially referred to as “The Company” or “The House”. The Company owns Armoury House and the Regiment’s current grounds and, in addition to supporting the Active Unit, provides the basis for a social calendar. There are two distinct classes of member of the Company. The first, Regimental Members, are those who are currently serving or who have previously served in the HAC Regiment or Special Constabulary. The second, Members, must have served at least two years in Regular or three years in Volunteer units of the Crown or in the Police. Some members are people who have reached senior rank (for example Major General The Duke of Westminster) and they provide some 17% of the overall membership of the Company.

Since 1633, the Company has been governed by a Court of Assistants, like many of the City Livery Companies. The first Court for which a record can be found was held in January 1657.

The Pikemen and Musketeers (formed 1925, given a Royal Warrant 1955) are made up of veteran members of the Active Unit. They are the personal bodyguard of the Lord Mayor of the City of London and form his Guard on ceremonial occasions.

The Light Cavalry Troop (formed 1979, granted Royal Warrant 2004) is open to both Regimental and Non-Regimental members of the Company. They escort the Lady Mayoress, and in particular provide her ‘Travelling Escort’ at the Lord Mayor’s Show.

From 1538 to 1658, the HAC occupied and trained at the Old Artillery Ground in Spitalfields on the site of the outer precinct of the dissolved Priory and Hospital of St Mary Spital. In 1658, following disputes over use of the Ground with the Gunners of the Tower, it moved to its current site south of the Bunhill Fields Burial Ground continuing to the south as far as Chiswell Street. This area is described in a map of the area of 1677 as the ‘New Artillery Garden’ and has variously been referred to as the Artillery Ground and the Artillery Garden. This current site now falls in the London Borough of Islington, and is just north of the City of London, the main entrance being in City Road. During the aftermath of the 7 July 2005 London bombings on the London transport system, the Artillery Garden was used as a temporary mortuary.

Armoury House stands at the north of these grounds, and is the home of the HAC. It was built to replace a smaller 17th-century armoury; the central portion being completed in 1735 to designs by Thomas Stibbs financed in part by a gift of £500 from King George I. Subscriptions were received from members of the Company and from the Court of Lieutenancy for the City of London. The building cost £1,332.

In 1802, a distinctive flag tower was added to the roof. The East and West Wings were built in 1828, replacing much smaller buildings on either side of Armoury House. A cottage, originally for the Sergeant Major, was built against the West Wing in 1850. 1862 saw the completion of a Victorian drill hall attached to the rear. The Albert Room, as it was called, featured an iron trussed roof and was named in honour of the then recently deceased Prince Albert.

In 1990, the hall was bombed by the Provisional IRA whilst a 21st birthday party was in progress.

Finsbury Barracks is the Regiment’s Headquarters and is leased by London RFCA from the HAC itself. Completed in 1857, it was designed by the architect Joseph Jennings and built in Kentish Ragstone. An extension, faced in striped stone and granite, linking Finsbury Barracks to Armoury House was designed by Arnold &amp

United States Home JONES 13 Jerseys

United States Home JONES 13 Jerseys



; Boston and added in 1994. Finsbury Barracks was refurbished in the same year and was re-opened by the Captain General in 1996.

Built in 1928 on land leased from the National Rifle Association at Bisley and replacing the original hut on the site. The building was funded by donations, including some in memory of the fallen of the First World War.

In 1999, the Company acquired the Welsh Pencelli Estate near Brecon as an area that could be used by the Regiment for military and adventure training. The historic estate lies in the heart of the Brecon Beacons National Park and comprises approximately 14,000 acres (57 km²) of hill land.


In 1995 six public schools (Eton, Harrow, Marlborough, Radley, Rugby and Wellington) became affiliated to the Company. The rationale behind these affiliations is to facilitate communication with the schools and to inform students of the opportunities available to them within the HAC.

The HAC established a Cadet Battalion in 1942 during the Second World War which continued until 1958. During the War and until 1948 members of the Cadet Battalion fired salutes and provided guards of honour whilst members of the HAC were away on active service. In 2012 the HAC sponsored and helped establish a cadet unit at the City of London Academy Islington.