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Special member state territories and the European Union

Several European Union member states have territories which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union. These statuses may have a wide range of derogation from EU policies. Most of the territories which are outside the EU nonetheless have a special relationship with the EU.

The outermost regions (OMR) are territories forming part of a member state water glass bottles wholesale, situated a significant distance from mainland Europe, which are part of the EU. According to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, both primary and secondary European Union law applies automatically to these territories, with possible derogations to take account of their “structural social and economic situation … which is compounded by their remoteness, insularity, small size, difficult topography and climate, economic dependence on a few products, the permanence and combination of which severely restrain their development”. All form part of the EU’s customs area, however some fall outside of Schengen Area (all but Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores) and European Union Value Added Tax Area (EU VAT Area).

Seven outermost regions were recognised at the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. The Treaty of Lisbon included two additional territories (Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin) in 2007, both of which seceded from one of the original outermost regions (Guadeloupe). Saint Barthélemy changed its status from OMR to OCT with effect from 1 January 2012. Mayotte, which was formerly an OCT, joined the EU as a OMR with effect from 1 January 2014. As of April 2014, a total of nine territories (six French, two Portuguese, and one Spanish) were registered to have OMR status.

Azores and Madeira are two groups of Portuguese islands in the Atlantic. Azores and Madeira are integral parts of the Portuguese Republic, but both have the special status as Autonomous Regions, with a degree of self-governance. While derogations from the application of EU law could apply, none do. Their VAT is lower than the rest of Portugal, but they are not outside the EU VAT Area.

The Canary Islands are a Spanish archipelago off the African coast which form one of the 17 Autonomous Communities of Spain–the country’s principal first-level administrative division. They are outside the EU VAT Area. The Canary Islands are the most populated and economically strongest territory of all the outermost regions in the European Union. The outermost regions office for support and information is located in these islands, in the city of Las Palmas on the island of Gran Canaria.

French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion are five French overseas departments (and also overseas regions) which under French law are, for the most part, treated as integral parts of the Republic. The euro is legal tender; however, they are outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.

Mayotte is the newest of the five overseas departments having changed from an overseas collectivity, with OCT status, on 31 March 2011. It became an outermost region and thus part of the EU on 1 January 2014.

Saint Martin is the only overseas collectivity of France with the status of being an outermost region of the EU. As with the French overseas departments, the euro is legal tender in Saint Martin, and it is outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.

On 22 February 2007, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy were broken away from the French overseas department of Guadeloupe to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions, European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community. The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty which listed them as an outermost region. However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012.

The overseas countries and territories (OCT) are dependent territories that have a special relationship with one of the member states of the EU, and have been explicitly invited by the EU treaty to join the EU-OCT Association (OCTA). They were listed in Annex II acc. to Article 198 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which aside from inviting them to join OCTA, also provided them the opportunity to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers and freedom of establishment. Yet, the freedom of establishment is limited by Article 203 TFEU and the respective Council Decision on OCTs (). Its Article 51(1)(a) prescribes only that “the Union shall accord to natural and legal persons of the OCTs a treatment no less favourable than the most favourable treatment applicable to like natural and legal persons of any third country with whom the Union concludes or has concluded an economic integration agreement.” Again this can be, according to Article 51(2)(b) limited. The obligations provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to treatment granted under measures providing for recognition of qualifications, licences or prudential measures in accordance with Article VII of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) or the GATS Annex on Financial Services.

The OCTs are not subject to the EU’s common external customs tariffs but may claim customs on goods imported from the EU on a non-discriminatory basis. They are not part of the EU and the EU acquis does not apply to them, though those joining OCTA are required to respect the detailed rules and procedures outlined by this association agreement (Council Decision 2013/755/EU). OCTA members are entitled to ask for EU financial support.

When the Rome Treaty was signed in March 1957, a total of 15 OCTs existed: French West Africa, French Equatorial Africa, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Comoros Archipelago, French Madagascar, French Somaliland, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, French Togoland, French Cameroons, Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of Somalia, Netherlands New Guinea. The list was since then revised multiple times, and comprised—as noted by the Lisbon Treaty—25 OCTs in 2007. One of the French territories subsequently switched status from OMR to OCT (Saint Barthélemy), while another French territory switched from OCT to OMR (Mayotte). As of July 2014, there are still 25 OCTs (twelve with the United Kingdom, six with France, six with the Netherlands and one with Denmark) of which 22 have joined OCTA. The three OCTs which are not part of OCTA (British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory and South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands) do not have a permanent population.

There are twelve overseas territories of the United Kingdom (all but Gibraltar, which, unlike the other territories, is part of the European Union (see below), and the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia on Cyprus), namely:

Bermuda did not – despite having OCT status as defined by the Rome Treaty – join the EU-OCT Association (OCTA) together with the other overseas territories in November 2001, but instead only joined OCTA on 2 July 2014. As of July 2014, it is only the three remote areas without any permanent population (British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands), that are not members of OCTA. All citizens of the British overseas territories, except those residing at Britain’s sovereign bases in Cyprus, were granted full British citizenship by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, and are consequently citizens of the European Union.

A total of six French overseas territories currently have OCT status within EU.

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (which also include the French Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, and the French claim of Adélie Land in Antarctica) is a French Overseas Territory but has no permanent population. It has sui generis status within France.

Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Barthélemy, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna are overseas collectivities (formerly referred to as overseas territories) of France, while New Caledonia is a “sui generis collectivity”. Saint Barthélemy and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon use the euro, while New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna use the CFP Franc, a currency which is tied to the euro and guaranteed by France. Natives of the collectivities are European citizens owing to their French citizenship and elections to the European Parliament are held in the collectivities.

On 22 February 2007, Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin were separated from the French overseas department of Guadeloupe to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence, their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions, European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community. The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty which listed them as outermost regions. However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012. The change was made to facilitate trade with countries outside the EU, notably the United States, and was made possible by a provision of the Lisbon Treaty which allows the European Council to change the EU status of a Danish, Dutch, or French territory on the initiative of the member state concerned.

Six territories of the Netherlands — all of which are Caribbean islands — have OCT status. As such, they benefit from being able to have their own export and import policy to and from the EU, while still having access to receive various EU funds (i.e. from the European Development Fund). The inhabitants of the islands are EU citizens owing to their Dutch citizenship, with the right to vote in elections to the European Parliament. Initially they did not have voting rights for such elections, but the European Court of Justice granted them such rights, when they ruled their exclusion from the franchise was contrary to EU law, as all other Dutch citizens resident outside the EU did have the right to vote. None of the islands use the euro as their currency. The US dollar is used on Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba, while Curaçao and St. Maarten utilize their own shared currency the Antillean guilder, and finally the currency of Aruba is the Aruban florin.

Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are classified as “countries” under Dutch law and have considerable internal autonomy. In June 2008, the Dutch government published a report on the effect on the islands were they to join the EU as outermost regions. It concluded that it would be for the islands themselves to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of becoming part of the EU as outermost regions and that nothing would be done absent the islands specifically requesting it.

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba (collectively called Caribbean Netherlands) are “special municipalities” of the Netherlands proper. Their current OCT status, and the prospect of advancing their status to become part of the EU as new OMRs (outermost regions), has been scheduled to be reviewed by the Dutch parliament in 2015, as part of the planned review of the Dutch law (WOLBES and FINBES) concerning the quality of their recently implemented new public administration bodies. In October 2015, the review concluded the present legal structures for governance and integration with European Netherlands was not working well within the framework of WolBES, but no recommendations were made in regards of whether a switch from OCT to OMR status would help improve this situation.

The islands inherited their OCT status from the Netherlands Antilles which was dissolved in 2010. The Netherlands Antilles were initially specifically excluded from all association with the EEC by reason of a protocol attached to the Treaty of Rome, allowing the Netherlands to ratify on behalf of the Netherlands in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only, which it subsequently did meet tenderizer. Following the entry into force of the Convention on the association of the Netherlands Antilles with the European Economic Community on 1 October 1964, however, the Netherlands Antilles became OCTs.

Greenland joined the then European Community in 1973 as a county along with Denmark, but voted to leave the EC in 1982 and left in 1985, to become an OCT. Citizens of Greenland are, nonetheless, EU citizens owing to their Danish citizenship. The EU–Greenland relationship is a comprehensive partnership, which is complementary to the OCT association arrangements under “Council Decision 2013/755/EU”; based specifically on “Council Decision 2014/137 of 14 March 2014” (outlining the relations) and the Fisheries Partnership Agreement of 30 July 2006.

While the outermost regions and the overseas countries and territories fall into structured categories to which common mechanisms apply, this is not true of all the special territories. Some territories have ad hoc arrangements in their relationship with the EU. Some of these could be called “protocol territories”[citation needed] as their status is governed by protocols attached to their respective countries’ accession treaties. The rest owe their status to European Union legislative provisions which exclude the territories from the application of the legislation concerned. Many were opted out from either the VAT area or the customs union or both.

Åland, a group of islands belonging to Finland, but with partial autonomy, located between Sweden and Finland, with a Swedish-speaking population, joined the EU along with Finland in 1995. The islands had a separate referendum on accession and like the Finnish mainland voted in favour.

EU law, including the fundamental four freedoms, applies to Åland. However, there are some derogations due to the islands’ special status. Åland is outside the VAT area and is exempt from common rules in relation to turnover taxes, excise duties and indirect taxation. In addition, to protect the local economy, the treaty of accession allows for a concept of hembygdsrätt/kotiseutuoikeus (regional citizenship) football player uniform. Consequently, there are restrictions on the holding of property and real estate, the right of establishment for business purposes and limitations on who can provide services in Åland, for people not holding this status. The status may be obtained by any Finnish citizen legally resident in Åland for 5 years who can demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the Swedish language.

The German exclave town of Büsingen am Hochrhein, fully surrounded by Switzerland, is in customs union with the latter non-EU country. The euro is legal tender, although the Swiss franc is preferred. Büsingen is excluded from the EU customs union and VAT area. Swiss VAT and sales taxes are paid.

The Italian exclave village of Campione d’Italia is enclaved by Switzerland’s Ticino canton as well as Lake Lugano (or Ceresio), and is a comune in the Province of Como, whilst Livigno, a small and remote mountain resort town, is a comune in the Province of Sondrio. Both comuni are part of the Lombardy region. Although part of the EU, they are excluded from the customs union and VAT area, with Livigno’s tax status dating back to Napoleonic times. Moreover, the only legal tender in Campione d’Italia is the Swiss franc, although in practice shops and restaurants accept payments also in euro – and their bills present dual price display in both Euros and Francs.

Ceuta and Melilla are two Spanish cities on the North African coast. They are part of the EU but they are excluded from the common agricultural and fisheries policies. They are also outside the customs union and VAT area, but no customs are levied on goods exported from the Union into either Ceuta and Melilla, and certain goods originating in Ceuta and Melilla are exempt from customs charges.

While nominally part of the Schengen Area, Spain performs identity checks on all sea and air passengers leaving the enclaves for elsewhere in the Schengen Area.

The Bailiwick of Jersey and Bailiwick of Guernsey—which form the Channel Islands—are Crown dependencies, under the sovereignty of the British monarch and thus part of the remaining British Empire. The islands take part in the EU freedom of movement of goods but not labour, services or capital. They are outside the VAT area, but inside the customs union.

Channel Islanders are British citizens and hence European citizens. As a result, they can travel freely within the EU, and all European citizens can travel to the islands without restrictions. However, the islands do not participate in the freedom of movement of labour, and as a result their citizens are not entitled to work or reside within the EU unless they are directly connected (through birth, or descent from a parent or grandparent) with the United Kingdom. After five years continuous residence in the United Kingdom, islanders are entitled to participate in the freedom of movement of labour or services throughout the EU.

The Isle of Man is a Crown dependency, under the sovereignty of the British monarch. The island takes part in the EU freedom of movement of goods but not labour, services or capital. The Isle of Man is inside the VAT area and the customs union.

Manx people are British citizens and hence European citizens. As a result, they can travel freely within the EU, and all European citizens can travel to the Isle of Man without restrictions. However, the island does not participate in the freedom of movement of labour, and as a result its citizens are not entitled to work or reside within the EU unless they are directly connected (through birth, or descent from a parent or grandparent) with the United Kingdom. After five years continuous residence in the United Kingdom, Manx people are entitled to participate in the freedom of movement of labour or services throughout the EU.

When the Republic of Cyprus became part of the European Union on 1 May 2004, the northern third of the island was outside of the effective control of its government due to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, a United Nations buffer zone of varying width separated the two parts, and a further 3% of the island was taken up by UK sovereign bases (under British sovereignty since the Treaty of Establishment in 1960). Two protocols to the Treaty of Accession 2003 – numbers 3 and 10, known as the “Sovereign Base Areas Protocol” and the “Cyprus Protocol” respectively – reflect this complex situation.

EU law only applies fully to the part of the island that is effectively controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. EU law is suspended in the northern third of the island (the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, whose independence is recognised only by Turkey) by article 1(1) of the Cyprus Protocol. If the island is reunified, the Council of the European Union will repeal the suspension by a decision. Four months after such a decision has been adopted, new elections to the European Parliament will be held on the island to elect Cypriot representatives from the whole of the island.

Cypriot nationality law applies to the entire island and is accordingly available to the inhabitants of Northern Cyprus and the British sovereign base areas on the same basis as to those born in the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus. Citizens of the Republic of Cyprus living in Northern Cyprus are EU citizens and are entitled to vote in elections to the European Parliament; however, elections to that Parliament are not organised in Northern Cyprus.[citation needed]

The United Kingdom has two sovereign base areas on Cyprus, namely Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Unlike other British overseas territories, they are not listed as Overseas Countries and Territories under the Treaty of Rome and their inhabitants (who are entitled to British Overseas Territories Citizenship) have never been entitled to British citizenship.

Prior to Cypriot accession to the EU in 2004, EU law did not apply to the sovereign base areas. This position was changed by the Cypriot accession treaty and EU law, while still not applying in principle, applies to the extent necessary to implement a protocol attached to that treaty. This protocol applies EU law relating to the Common Agricultural Policy, customs, indirect taxation, social policy and justice and home affairs to the sovereign base areas. The sovereign base areas’ authorities have also made provision for the unilateral application of directly applicable EU law. The UK also agreed in the Protocol to keep enough control of the external (i.e. off-island and northern Cyprus) borders of the base areas to ensure that the border between the sovereign base areas and the Republic of Cyprus can remain fully open and will not have to be policed as an external EU border. Consequently, the sovereign base areas will become a de facto part of the Schengen Area if and when Cyprus implements it. The base areas are already de facto members of the eurozone due to their previous use of the Cypriot pound before it was replaced by the euro in 2008.

As pointed out above, inhabitants of the sovereign base areas have never been entitled to British citizenship or to the European Union citizenship that would go with it, however Cypriot nationality law extends to Cypriots in the Sovereign Base Areas, meaning Cypriot residents, as citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, are entitled to EU citizenship. Just under half of the population of the sovereign base areas are Cypriots, the rest are British military personnel, support staff and their dependants. In a declaration attached to the Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus of 1960 the British government undertook not to allow new settlement of people in the sovereign base areas other than for temporary purposes.

The United Nations buffer zone between north and south Cyprus ranges in width from a few metres in central Nicosia to several kilometres in the countryside. While it is nominally under the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus, it is effectively administered by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). The population of the zone is 8,686 (as of October 2007), and one of the mandates of UNFICYP is “to encourage the fullest possible resumption of normal civilian activity in the buffer zone”. Article 2.1 of the Cyprus Protocol allows the European Council to determine to what extent the provisions of EU law apply in the buffer zone.

The Faroe Islands are not part of the EU, and they have not been part of the EU since Denmark joined the community in 1973. Danish citizens residing on the islands are not considered citizens of a member state within the meaning of the treaties or, consequently, citizens of the European Union. However, Faroese people may become EU citizens by changing their residence to the Danish mainland.

The Faroe Islands are not part of the Schengen Area, and Schengen visas are not valid. However, the islands are part of the Nordic Passport Union and the Schengen Agreement provides that travellers passing between the islands and the Schengen Area are not to be treated as passing the external frontier of the Area. This means that there is an identity check at air or boat travel to the islands where Nordic citizens on intra-Nordic travel need no passport, only showing the ticket plus identity card.

Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula and overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar, sharing a border with Spain to the north. It is part of the EU, having joined the European Economic Community under the United Kingdom in 1973. Article 355(3) (ex Article 299(4)) applies the treaty to “the European territories for whose external relations a Member State is responsible”, a provision which in practice only applies to Gibraltar. Although it is part of the EU, Gibraltar is outside the customs union and VAT area and is exempted from the Common Agricultural Policy; it does not form part of the Schengen Area. As a separate jurisdiction to the UK, Gibraltar’s government and parliament are responsible for the transposition of EU law into local law. In 2016 Gibraltar voted “remain” in the UK EU membership referendum; however Gibraltar’s membership is not distinct from the UK’s and Gibraltar is bound by the overall result of “leave”

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Owing to a declaration lodged by the United Kingdom with the EEC in 1982, Gibraltarians were to be counted as British nationals for the purposes of Community law. This was notwithstanding that they were not all, at the time, British citizens but many were British Overseas Territories citizens. As such Gibraltarians have enjoyed European Union citizenship from its creation by the Maastricht Treaty. Since 21 May 2002, all Gibraltarians have been granted the right to register a full British citizenship, while those who previously held a British Overseas Territory citizenship automatically were converted now to have a full British citizenship. Any child born in Gibraltar after 21 May 2002 will automatically become a British citizen, if just one of its parents is a British citizen or a Gibraltarian resident.

Despite their status as EU citizens resident in the EU, elections to the European Parliament were not held in Gibraltar until 2004. The inclusion resulted from the European Court of Human Rights’ 1999 ruling in Matthews v. United Kingdom which deemed that Gibraltar’s exclusion violated Article 3 of Protocol 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights. In the 2004 European Parliament election the territory formed part of the South West England constituency of the United Kingdom. The inclusion was unsuccessfully challenged by Spain before the European Court of Justice.

Like the UK, Gibraltar does not form part of the Schengen Area and, as a result, the border between Spain and Gibraltar is an external Schengen border through which Spain is legally obliged to perform full entrance and exit controls. However Gibraltar does participate in certain police and judicial cooperation aspects of the Schengen acquis in line with the UK’s request to participate in the same measures.

With respect to the application of EU law to Gibraltar, the governments of Spain and the United Kingdom made the following Declaration which is appended (as Declaration 55) to the Treaty on European Union: “The Treaties apply to Gibraltar as a European territory for whose external relations a Member State is responsible. This shall not imply changes in the respective positions of the Member States concerned.”

Helgoland is an island of Germany situated in the North Sea 70 km (43 mi) off the German north-western coast. It is part of the EU, but is excluded from the customs union and the VAT area.

Mount Athos is an autonomous monastic region of Greece. Greece’s EU accession treaty provides that Mount Athos maintains its centuries-old special legal status, guaranteed by article 105 of the Greek Constitution. It is part of the customs union but outside the VAT area. Notwithstanding that a special permit is required to enter the peninsula and that there is a prohibition on the admittance of women, it is part of the Schengen Area. The monastery has certain rights to house monks from countries outside the EU. A declaration attached to Greece’s accession treaty to the Schengen Agreement states that Mount Athos’s “special status” should be taken into account in the application of the Schengen rules.

The Saimaa Canal and Värska–Ulitina road are two of several distinct travel arrangements that exist or existed because of changes in borders over the course of the 20th century, where transport routes and installations ended up on the wrong side of the border. Some have become superfluous thanks to the Schengen Agreement.

Finland leases the 19.6 km-long Russian part of the Saimaa Canal from Russia and is granted extraterritoriality rights. The area is not part of the EU, it is a special part of Russia. Under the treaty signed by Finnish and Russian governments, Russian law is in force with a few exceptions concerning maritime rules and the employment of canal staff which fall under Finnish jurisdiction. There are also special rules concerning vessels travelling to Finland via the canal. Russian visas are not required for just passing through the canal, but a passport is needed and it is checked at the border. Euros are accepted for the canal fees. Prior to the 50-year lease renewal coming into effect in February 2012, the Maly Vysotsky Island had also been leased and managed by Finland. Since then it has been fully managed by Russian authorities, and is no longer part of the concession territory.

The road from Värska to Ulitina in Estonia, traditionally the only road to the Ulitina area, goes through Russian territory for one kilometre (0.6 mi) of its length, an area called Saatse Boot. This road has no border control, but there is no connection to any other road in Russia. It is not permissible to stop or walk along the road. This area is a part of Russia but is also a de facto part of the Schengen area.

Many currently independent states or parts of such were previously territories of the following EU members since the latter joined the EU or, previously the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC):

Most of these territories seceded before the implementation of the Maastricht treaty in 1993 and the following years, meaning that cooperation like the EU citizenship, the VAT union or the Eurozone did not exist, so it made less difference to be a special territory then.

These were:

Additionally in Europe there were special territories in the past that had different status than their “mainland”, because of various reasons, but now are part of a member state. Some of these territories were as follows:

The following areas are still special member state territories, but have changed their status. See their entries in the article for details.

Some European countries are strongly connected to the European Union, through the European Economic Area or similar agreements. These countries are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, the member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). They are inside the single market (with exceptions) and the Schengen area, but outside the Eurozone, customs territory, and VAT area. Norway and Switzerland have special areas.

This table summarises the various components of EU laws applied in the EU member states and their sovereign territories. Member states that do not have special-status territories are not included (as there the EU law applies fully with the exception of the opt-outs in the European Union and states under a safeguard clause or transitional period). Some territories of EFTA member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied as is the case with some European microstates.

Summary for member states that do not have special-status territories, but do not participate in certain EU provisions as they are either not yet eligible or have an opt-out.

A list of the remaining member states which do not have special-status territories, and participate in all EU provisions:

 Austria
 Belgium
 Estonia
 Latvia
 Lithuania
 Luxembourg
 Malta
 Slovakia
 Slovenia

The High Contracting Parties,

Anxious, at the time of signature of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, to define the scope of the provisions of Article 227 of this Treaty in respect of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,

Have agreed upon the following provisions, which shall be annexed to this Treaty:

The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, by reason of the constitutional structure of the Kingdom resulting from the Statute of 29 December 1954, shall, by way of derogation from Article 227, be entitled to ratify the Treaty on behalf of the Kingdom in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only.

Done at Rome this twenty-fifth day of March in the year one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven.

Ulukent

Ulukent ist eine Kleinstadt im Landkreis Tavas der türkischen Provinz Denizli. Ulukent liegt etwa 60 km südwestlich der Provinzhauptstadt Denizli und 15 km südwestlich von Tavas. Ulukent hatte laut der letzten Volkszählung 1.025 Einwohner (Stand Ende Dezember 2010).

Das Verwaltungsgebiet von Ulukent gliedert sich in zwei Stadtteile liter water bottle bpa free, Cumhuriyet Mahallesi und Hürriyet Mahallesi, die jeweils von einem Muhtar verwaltet werden.

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Kurt Atterberg

Kurt Magnus Atterberg (Gotemburgo, Suecia, 12 de diciembre de 1887 – Estocolmo, Suecia, 15 de febrero de 1974) fue un compositor y director de orquesta sueco conocido por sus obras sinfónicas, óperas y ballets.

Estudió violonchelo, instrumento que posteriormente tocaría ocasionalmente en orquestas. Publicó su primera obra, una Rapsodia para piano y orquesta, Opus 1 reusable bottles, en 1908. Dos años después, hizo llegar dicha rapsodia y una versión incompleta de su Sinfonía nº.1 en mi menor al Conservatorio de Estocolmo, a fin de ser admitido en el mismo. En él estudió composición y orquestación, mientras recibía instrucción simultáneamente en el “Real Instituto de Tecnología”, donde obtendría su graduación como ingeniero en 1911.

Desde 1912 y hasta 1968 Atterberg trabajó en la “Oficina Sueca de Patentes y Registros”, en la que alcanzaría la jefatura de una sección en 1937. En 1912, hizo su debú como director de orquesta dirigiendo su propia Primera Sinfonía insulated stainless steel bottle. En 1916 fue promovido al puesto de Maestro del “Real Teatro Sueco” de Estocolmo, puesto que ostentaría hasta 1922. Desde 1919 hasta 1957 ejerció la crítica musical para el diario Stockholmstidningen.

En 1924, Atterberg colaboró en la fundación de la “Sociedad de Compositores Suecos” y la “Sociedad para los Derechos de los Artistas Suecos” (una organización similar a la ASCAP). En 1926 fue nombrado miembro de la “Real Academia Sueca de Música”, de la que fue secretario entre 1940 y 1953.

Al tiempo que componía una ópera sobre los vikingos, Härvard Harpolekare, Atterberg escribió también su “Sinfonia Piccola” (Sinfonía nº. 4 en sol menor, Opus 14) inspirada en una antología de aires folclóricos suecos publicada en 1875

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En 1928, con motivo del centenario de Schubert, la casa discográfica “Columbia Grammophone Company” patrocinó un concurso destinado a la composición de una sinfonía inspirada en la “Sinfonía nº. 8” (“Incompleta”) del maestro austríaco. Atterberg obtuvo el primer premio, dotado con 10.000 dólares son su Sinfonía nº. 6. Esta obra fue grabada por Sir Thomas Beecham y posteriormente por su mismo autor.

Atterberg falleció en Estocolmo el 15 de febrero de 1974. Una vez dijo que: “Los rusos, Brahms, Reger; éstos fueron mis ideales”. En efecto, la música de Atterberg combina la influencia de estos compositores con los temas del folclore sueco.

Namibian Military School

The Namibian Military School is a training unit of the Namibian Defence Force. As per international norm the School is a military unit of the Namibian Defence Force (NDF) and It is housed in the School of Military Science of the University of Namibia.

It is the premier training institution of the Namibian military and offers a variety of training ranging from basic military training to undergraduate as well as postgraduate academic qualification. It provides officers of all the arms of service an opportunity to earn a military science oriented qualification.

The school traces its roots back to the Namibian Liberation struggle when the forerunner to today’s military school was established in late 1979 as the “SWA Military School” by the South West African Territorial Force during the South African administration of Namibia. The school is the primary training unit of the force. It is partly based at the Osona Military base. It is also one of two NDF training institutions that offer the six-month basic military training (BMT) to all recruits wanting a career in the Namibian Defence Force. The school also conducts training for all officer cadets in the force.

In 2012 it was announced that the Ministry of Defence and the University of Namibia agreed to twin up and come up with a degree level military science curriculum to provide cadet officers with a degree level qualification.

The school is located at the military base of Osona outside Okahandja. The main academic campus is being built within the town of Okahandja Waterproof Phone Bag. Some of the B.Mil classes are offered at the University of Namibia Campus in Windhoek.

As the primary training institution, basic training for all NDF recruits is undertaken at the Osona military base outside Okahandja. Basic training for recruits is six months long, and is offered in two phases, Basic Military Training and Platoon Weapons.

Some of the military aspects covered include drills, field craft, skill at arms, minor tactics, coin ops, military hygiene, military law, military aspects, first aid, map reading, law of armed conflict and conventional warfare.

A cadet officers’ course is run at the military school.

As of 2013, the University of Namibia and the military school jointly began offering the undergraduate Bachelor of Military Science (Honours) degree with three specialization areas, Aeronautical, Army and Nautical. The Nautical specialization is sub-divided into an additional three fields: Nautical-Electronics

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, Nautical-Mechanical and Nautical-Weapon Systems.

The MA-SSS programme was the first implemented as a joint curriculum between UNAM and the Ministry of Defence in 2007. It is a master’s level degree. It mainly enrolls senior officers of the Namibian military. In 2012 the postgraduate diploma in Security and Strategic Studies was also initiated by the Ministry of Defence and UNAM as a “bridging” course to help students prepare for the tougher Master of Arts in Security and Strategic Studies degree course.

Single-board computer

A single-board computer (SBC) is a complete computer built on a single circuit board, with microprocessor(s), memory, input/output (I/O) and other features required of a functional computer. Single-board computers were made as demonstration or development systems, for educational systems, or for use as embedded computer controllers. Many types of home computer or portable computer integrated all their functions onto a single printed circuit board.

Unlike a desktop personal computer, single board computers often do not rely on expansion slots for peripheral functions or expansion. Some single-board computers are made to plug into a backplane for system expansion. Single board computers have been built using a wide range of microprocessors. Simple designs, such as built by computer hobbyists, often use static RAM and low-cost 8 or 16 bit processors. Other types, such as blade servers, include all the memory and processor performance of a server computer in a compact space-saving format.

The first true single-board computer (see the May 1976 issue of Radio-Electronics) called the “dyna-micro” was based on the Intel C8080A, and also used Intel’s first EPROM, the C1702A. The dyna-micro was re-branded by E&L Instruments of Derby, CT in 1976 as the “MMD-1” (Mini-Micro Designer 1) and was made famous as the example microcomputer in the very popular 8080 “BugBook” series of the time. SBCs also figured heavily in the early history of home computers, for example in the Acorn Electron and the BBC Micro. Other typical early single board computers like the KIM-1 were often shipped without enclosure, which had to be added by the owner, other examples are the Ferguson Big Board and the Nascom. With the development of PCs there was a sharp shift away from SBC, with computers being constructed from a motherboard, with functions like serial ports, disk drive controller and graphics being provided on daughterboards. The recent availability of advanced chip sets providing most of the I/O features as embedded components allows motherboard manufacturers to offer motherboards with I/O traditionally provided by daughterboards. Most PC motherboards now offer on-board support for disk drives including IDE and SATA with RAID, graphics, Ethernet, and traditional I/O such as serial and parallel ports, USB, and keyboard/mouse support. Plug-in cards are now more commonly high performance graphics cards (really graphics co-processors), high end RAID controllers, and specialized I/O cards such as data acquisition and DSP (Digital Signal Processor) boards.

Single board computers were made possible by increasing density of integrated circuits. A single-board configuration reduces a system’s overall cost, by reducing the number of circuit boards required, and by eliminating connectors and bus driver circuits that would otherwise be used. By putting all the functions on one board, a smaller overall system can be obtained, for example, as in notebook computers. Connectors are a frequent source of reliability problems, so a single-board system eliminates these problems.

Single board computers are now commonly defined across two distinct architectures: no slots and slot support.

Embedded SBCs are units providing all the required I/O with no provision for plug-in cards. Applications are typically gaming (slot machines, video poker), kiosk, and machine control automation. Embedded SBCs are much smaller than the ATX-type motherboard found in PCs, and provide an I/O mix more targeted to an industrial application, such as on-board digital and analog I/O white bracelets, on-board bootable flash memory (eliminating the need for a disk drive), no video, etc.

The term “Single Board Computer” now generally applies to an architecture where the single board computer is plugged into a backplane to provide for I/O cards. In the case of PC104, the bus is not a backplane in the traditional sense but is a series of pin connectors allowing I/O boards to be stacked.

Single board computers are most commonly used in industrial situations where they are used in rackmount format for process control or embedded within other devices to provide control and interfacing. Because of the very high levels of integration, reduced component counts and reduced connector counts, SBCs are often smaller, lighter, more power efficient and more reliable than comparable multi-board computers.

The primary advantage of an ATX motherboard as compared to an SBC is cost. Motherboards are manufactured by the millions for the consumer and office markets allowing tremendous economies of scale. Single Board Computers, on the other hand, are in a specialized market niche and are manufactured in much smaller numbers with the resultant higher cost. Motherboards and SBCs now offer similar levels of feature integration meaning that a motherboard failure in either standard will require equivalent replacement.

The primary advantage of a PICMG Single Board Computer is the availability of backplanes offering virtually any slot configuration including legacy ISA support. Motherboards tend to the latest slot technology such that PCI slots are becoming legacy support with PCI Express becoming the standard. In addition, motherboards offer, at most, 7 slots while backplanes can offer up to 20 slots. In a backplane 12.3″ wide, similar in size to an ATX motherboard at 12″, a backplane with a Single Board Computer can offer 12 slots for I/O cards with virtually any mix of slot types.

One common variety of single board computer uses standardized computer form factors intended for use in a backplane enclosure. Some of these types are CompactPCI, PXI, VMEbus, VXI, and PICMG. SBCs have been built around various internal processing structures including the Intel architecture, multiprocessing architectures, and lower power processing systems like RISC and SPARC. In the Intel PC world, the intelligence and interface/control circuitry is placed on a plug-in board that is then inserted into a passive (or active) backplane. The end result is similar to having a system built with a motherboard, except that the backplane determines the slot configuration. Backplanes are available with a mix of slots (ISA, PCI, PCIX

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, PCI-Express, etc.), usually totaling 20 or fewer, meaning it will fit in a 19″ rackmount enclosure (17″ wide chassis).

Some single-board computers have connectors which allow a stack of circuit boards, each containing expansion hardware, to be assembled without a traditional backplane. Examples of stacking SBC form factors include PC/104, PC/104-Plus, PCI-104, EPIC, and EBX; these systems are commonly available for use in embedded control systems.

PICMG provides standards for the backplane interface: PICMG 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 provide for ISA and PCI support with 1.2 adding PCIX support. PICMG 1.3 provides for PCI-Express support. single-board computers meeting the PICMG 1.3 specification are referred to as a System Host Board (SHB).

Stack-type SBCs often have memory provided on plug-cards such as SIMMs and DIMMs. Hard drive circuit boards are also not counted for determining if a computer is an SBC or not for two reasons, firstly because the HDD is regarded as a single block storage unit, and secondly because the SBC may not require a hard drive at all as most can be booted from their network connections.

Callitos Lopez

Callitos Fernando Lopez (born 10 December 1980) is a former Barbadian cricketer who played for Barbadian national side and several other teams in West Indian domestic cricket. He played as a right-arm pace bowler

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Lopez was born in Saint Peter Parish, Barbados

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. He represented the West Indies under-19s in six matches in the 2000 Under-19 World Cup in Sri Lanka, and took five wickets with a best of 3/16 against Zimbabwe. After the World Cup

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, Lopez made his first-class debut in August 2000, playing for Barbados against a touring South Africa A team. Opening the bowling with future West Indies international Ian Bradshaw, he took 5/61 in the second innings of the match, which was to be the best performance of his career. Later in 2000, Lopez played two limited-overs matches for Barbados in the 2000–01 Red Stripe Bowl. He did not return to first-class cricket until the 2001–02 Busta Cup, when he appeared in five matches for West Indies B (a development team)

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. He had little success, however, taking only five wickets. In November 2008, after over six years out of top-flight West Indian domestic cricket, Lopez was selected in the Combined Campuses and Colleges squad for the 2008–09 WICB Cup. He took three wickets in four matches, with a best of 2/66 against Trinidad and Tobago.

Baseball Hall of Fame

Die Baseball Hall of Fame ist die Ruhmeshalle der größten US-amerikanischen Baseballspieler. Dieses Museum ist der Geschichte des Baseballs und der Helden der Major Leagues gewidmet.

Sie liegt in Cooperstown, einer Kleinstadt im Bundesstaat New York. Der Legende nach war Baseball dort 1838 von Abner Doubleday erfunden worden; heute gilt diese Legende als widerlegt, zur Zeit der Gründung der Hall of Fame in den 1930er Jahren wurde sie jedoch allgemein geglaubt und daher dieser Standort gewählt.

Jedes Jahr werden in einer Zeremonie die neu gewählten Mitglieder der Hall of Fame eingeführt und mit einer Messingtafel in der Ruhmeshalle verewigt. Die Entscheidung über diese Ehrung trifft die Baseball Writers Association of America, ein Verband von Sportjournalisten, weshalb es auch nicht ganz selten Fälle gibt, in denen an Entscheidungen zur Aufnahme von Spielern viel Kritik zu hören ist. Dabei geht es meist darum, dass der Betroffene einfach nicht die Zahlen (etwa Home Runs, Hits etc.) aufweisen könne, die ihn als „Hall of Famer“ qualifizieren.

Die Statuten sehen vor, dass Spieler erstmals nach Ablauf von vollen fünf Jahren seit Beendigung ihrer aktiven Zeit wählbar sind. Aufgenommen werden allerdings auch Manager (entspricht nach deutschen Begriffen dem Trainer), Maskottchen, Umpires (Schiedsrichter) und andere Persönlichkeiten, die sich besondere Verdienste um den Sport erworben haben, so etwa auch Rundfunkansager.

Pete Rose hält mehrere Rekorde des US-amerikanischen Profibaseballs, so zum Beispiel die meisten Hits und die größte Zahl an absolvierten Spielen. So hat Rose je 500 Spiele an fünf verschiedenen Positionen zwischen First Baseman und Leftfielder gemacht. Rose ging jedoch 1990 eine Vereinbarung mit dem Commissioner of Baseball ein, kraft derer er von jeder weiteren Teilnahme am Baseballsport ausgeschlossen wurde. Im Gegenzug verzichtete der Commissioner darauf, die Ergebnisse einer gegen Rose geführten Untersuchung zu veröffentlichen, in deren Verlauf sich, so der Commissioner, genügend Beweise gefunden hatten

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, dass Pete Rose in seiner Zeit als Teammanager auf Baseballspiele, auch solche des eigenen Teams, gewettet hatte. Hinzu kommt, dass diese Wetten teils bei Buchmachern platziert wurden, deren Beziehungen zur Unterwelt als erwiesen galten. Seit dem „Black-Sox-Skandal“ von 1919 galten solche Wetten im US-Baseball als Todsünde und als Todesurteil für jede Karriere.

Es wird nun in den USA schon jahrelang heftig gestritten, ob über diese Entscheidung hinweggesehen und Rose in die Hall of Fame aufgenommen werden darf. Viele meinen Rose Bracelet, bei der enormen Karriereleistung von Pete Rose müsse man Gnade vor Recht ergehen lassen. Dem wird von anderen entgegengehalten women sleeveless dress, er habe sich nie freimütig zu seinem Verstoß bekannt. Er hat dies vielmehr jahrelang vehement bestritten. Auch in einem vor ein paar Jahren veröffentlichten Buch macht er zu dem Thema nur sehr schwammige Bemerkungen. Ein offenes Schuldbekenntnis, so diese Gegenmeinung, sei aber unbedingte Voraussetzung, ihm als reuigem Sünder doch noch die Ehre einer Aufnahme zuteilwerden zu lassen.