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Honourable Artillery Company

The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII and is considered one of the oldest military organisations in the world. Today, it is a registered charity whose purpose is to attend to the “better defence of the realm”, this purpose is primarily achieved by the support of the HAC Regiment and a detachment of Special Constabulary to the City of London Police. The word “artillery” in “Honourable Artillery Company” does not have the current meaning that is generally associated with it, but dates from a time when in the English language that word meant any projectile, including for example arrows shot from a bow. The equivalent form of words in modern English would be either “Honourable Infantry Company” or “Honourable Military Company”.

In the 17th century, its members played a significant part in the formation of both the Royal Marines and the Grenadier Guards. More recently, regiments, battalions and batteries of the Company fought with distinction in both World Wars and its current Regiment, which forms part of the Army Reserve, is the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior in the Army Reserve. Members of the Regiment and Specials are drawn, for the most part, from young men and women working in and around the City and Greater London. Those leaving the active units may become Veteran Members and remain within the fraternity of the Company.

The HAC can trace its history back as far as 1087, but it received a Royal Charter from Henry VIII on 25 August 1537, when Letters Patent were received by the Overseers of the Fraternity or Guild of St George authorising them to establish a perpetual corporation for the defence of the realm to be known as the Fraternity or Guild of Artillery of Longbows, Crossbows and Handgonnes. This body was known by a variety of names until 1658, when it was first referred to as the Artillery Company. It was first referred to as the Honourable Artillery Company in 1685 and officially received the name from Queen Victoria in 1860. However, the Archers’ Company of the Honourable Artillery Company was retained into the late 19th century, though as a private club. Founded in 1781 by Sir Ashton Lever, it met at Archers’ Hall, Inner Circle, Regent’s Park, London. The Archers’ Company remained a part of the regiment operated from 1784 to the late 1790s, along with Matross, Grenadier (established on 11 August 1686) and Light Infantry companies/divisions, with a Rifle or Jaeger Company introduced around 1803.

The regiment has the rare distinction of having fought on the side of both Parliament and the Royalists during the English Civil War 1642 to 1649.

From its formation, the company trained at a site it had occupied at the Old Artillery Ground in Spitalfields and at The Merchant Taylors’ Company Hall. In 1622, the company built its first Armoury House at the site of the Old Artillery Gardens.

In 1638, Sir Maurice Abbot granted the company use of lands at its current site south of Bunhill Fields Burial Ground on City Road, which in 1649 consisted of twelve acres enclosed by a brick wall and pale. In 1657, it sold its old Armoury House in Spitalfield to Master Gunner Richard Woolaston for £300.

In 1656, the Grenadier Guards were formed from gentlemen of the Honourable Artillery Company who had taken the then heir to the throne, Prince Charles (later Charles II), to Europe for his safety during the English Civil War.

In 28 October 1664, in the New Artillery Gardens, the body of men that would become the Royal Marines was first formed with an initial strength of 1,200 infantrymen recruited from the Trained Bands of London as part of the mobilisation for the Second Anglo-Dutch War. James (later King James VII & II), the Duke of York and Albany, Lord High Admiral and brother of King Charles II, was Captain-General of the Honourable Artillery Company, the unit that trained the Trained Bands.

The Company served in Broadgate during the Gordon Riots of 1780 and in gratitude for its role in restoring order to the City, the Corporation of London presented “two brass field-pieces”, which led to the creation of an HAC Artillery Division. (These guns are on display in the entrance hall of Armoury House.)

In 1860, control of the Company moved from the Home Office to the War Office and in 1889, a Royal Warrant gave the Secretary of State for War control of the Company’s military affairs. In 1883, Queen Victoria decreed that the HAC took precedence next after the Regular Forces and therefore before the Militia and Yeomanry in consideration of its antiquity.

Members of the Company first served as a formed unit overseas in the South African War (1899–1902). Almost two hundred members served; the majority in the City of London Imperial Volunteers (CIV) as infantry, mounted infantry and in a Field Battery that was officered, and for the most part manned, by members of the Company.

In 1907, the Company became part of the newly formed Territorial Force with the passing of the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act. The HAC Infantry was due to become part of the newly formed London Regiment as the “26th (County of London) Battalion” but instead managed to retain its own identity as the Honourable Artillery Company Infantry Battalion. The HAC also had its property and privileges protected by the Honourable Artillery Company Act 1908.

The HAC expanded to three infantry battalions and seven artillery batteries during the First World War. Second Lieutenants Reginald Leonard Haine and Alfred Oliver Pollard, of the 1st Battalion HAC, were awarded Victoria Crosses for their actions at Gavrelle in 1917. In total 1,650 men from the HAC were killed during the war.

In September 1914, the 1st Battalion followed the British Expeditionary Force to France and fought in the 1st Battle of Ypres. After the fighting at the Battle of the Ancre in 1916 and the Battle of Arras in 1917, it became an officer training battalion and provided demonstration platoons. Elements of the battalion were used to help quell the Étaples Mutiny. The 2nd Battalion HAC was raised in August 1914; it was in France by October 1916 and in action on 25 February 1917 at Bucquoy. They fought at the Battle of Arras in May and the 3rd Battle of Ypres in October. In November 1917, the battalion moved to the Italian Front under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Richard O’Connor. In the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, in October 1918, they led a force of Italians, Americans and British that compelled the garrison of the strategic island of Papadopoli (in the main channel of the River Piave) to surrender. For this remarkable feat of arms, the HAC was awarded two Distinguished Service Orders, five Military Crosses, three Distinguished Conduct Medals and 29 Military Medals.

Both A Battery and B Battery went to Suez in April 1915. In July, B Battery fought in the recapture of Sheikh Othman (key to the water supply to Aden) from the Turks as part of the Aden campaign. In February 1917, both batteries took part in the Palestine Campaign, were in action at the First and Second Battle of Gaza and entered Jerusalem in December 1917. In the German counter-attack during the Second action of Es Salt on 1 May 1918, A Battery was forced to make a rapid withdrawal under heavy fire, which resulted in the loss of all its guns. Both A and B Batteries took part in the Battle of Megiddo in September.

The 2nd Line batteries – 2/A Battery and 2/B Battery – were formed in 1914 and served on the Western Front in 1917 and 1918 as part of an Army Field Artillery Brigade; the 3rd Line batteries – A (Reserve) Battery and B (Reserve) Battery – were formed in 1915 to provide trained replacements for the 1st and 2nd Line batteries.

A seventh battery, the 309th (HAC) Siege Battery RGA, went to France in April 1917 and saw action at the Battle of Messines and the Battle of Amiens.

In 1919, Lt-Col Edward Lisle Strutt commanded a detachment of HAC soldiers that escorted the family of Charles I, the last Austro-Hungarian Emperor-King, to safety in Switzerland in 1919, after having served as the family’s protector at Eckartsau on the personal initiative of King George V.

When the Territorial Force was reconstituted as the Territorial Army (TA) in 1920, the HAC infantry battalion was reformed, while A and B Batteries formed a composite RHA unit with the City of London Yeomanry (Rough Riders) (one battery) as 11th (HAC and City of London Yeomanry) Brigade, RHA. The TA began to expand rapidly at the time of the Munich Crisis in 1938, and the Yeomanry left to form a separate light anti-aircraft regiment leaving 11th Regiment RHA (HAC). Subsequently, the HAC formed the 12th (1939) and 13th Regiments RHA (HAC) (1940) and the 86th (HAC) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment (1939).

In 1939, the Infantry Battalion became 162 (HAC) Officer Cadet Training Unit, this was the Officer Training Unit of the Reconnaissance Corps. In 1942, 101 RAC OCTU amalgamated with 162 Reconnaissance Corps OCTU to form 100 RAC OCTU based at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.

The 11th (HAC) Regiment, RHA, served in North Africa at the Battle of Knightsbridge with 25-pounder guns and, after re-equipping with the M7 Priest self-propelled gun, in the Second Battle of El Alamein. The regiment’s guns were the first guns ashore in the invasion of Sicily; then they took part in the Allied invasion of Italy and the Italian Campaign.

The 12th (HAC) Regiment, RHA, took part in the Operation Torch landings and were in action at Thala in February 1943, where they halted a German advance following the Battle of the Kasserine Pass. After re-equipping with Priests, they too moved on to Italy in March 1944 and fought at Monte Cassino.

The 13th (HAC) Regiment, RHA, (equipped with Sexton self-propelled guns) fought in Normandy, the Netherlands and across the Rhine into Germany as part of 11th Armoured Division.

The regiment formed part of 26th (London) Anti-Aircraft Brigade defending the London Inner Artillery Zone. Anti-Aircraft Command mobilised on 24 August 1939 best running phone holder, and so 86th (HAC) HAA Rgt was already manning static gunsites at places like Primrose Hill and Finsbury Park when war was declared on 3 September refillable water bottle. The regiment served in the defence of the capital throughout The Blitz. It became a mobile unit in 1942 and was one of the first units to land on D-Day, with Regimental Headquarters commanding a composite AA Assault Group on Juno Beach. During the Normandy Campaign and subsequent advance into Belgium the regiment’s 3.7-inch HAA guns were sometimes used to engage ground targets. During the winter of 1944–45 its guns and radar defended Brussels and Antwerp against V-1 flying bombs (known as ‘Divers’).

Over seven hundred members of the Company lost their lives during the Second World War.

In 1947, the Company was reorganised into:

In 1973, the Regiment was again reorganised; it was given the role of providing ‘Stay Behind’ Observation Posts (OPs) for the British Army of the Rhine as one of the three Territorial Army units making up the Corps Patrol Unit (with 21 and 23 SAS). The new structure was:

In 1994, the signals troops that had been integrated into the patrol squadrons were brought together to form the Signal Squadron (they were subsequently re-integrated with the patrol squadrons in 2010).

In 1992, the signals troops that had been integrated into the patrol squadrons were brought together to form the Signal Squadron; they were subsequently re-integrated with the patrol squadrons in 2010.   In 1992, on Salisbury Plain, the HAC was the last British Army unit to fire the twenty-five pounder in the field, as the Gun Troop retrained onto the 105mm Light Gun. The 25 pounder continued to be fired ceremonially until replaced by the Light Gun.

In 1996, the first formed unit of the Regiment to be mobilised for active service since the Second World War was called up for Operation Resolute with the NATO IFOR in Bosnia.

The Regiment participated in the celebration of HM The Queen’s Golden Jubilee on 4 June 2002 by firing a 62 gun salute at the Tower of London, and by providing a Guard of Honour (including the Regimental Band and the Massed Corps of Drums of the 1st Bn Grenadier Guards and the HAC) at St Paul’s Cathedral. In December of that year, the Captain General visited and dined with the company to commemorate her Golden Jubilee as Captain General.

In 2005, the guns were withdrawn from Gun Troop, which was renamed Liaison Troop.

In 2006, the HAC was the first major unit of the Territorial Army to convert to the Bowman communications system. When Bowman was withdrawn from the Territorial Army in 2008/9, it was one of the few units to retain the equipment.

In 2016, Queen Elizabeth II became the longest serving Captain-General of the HAC, with 64 years of service.

In 2017 a new battery, A Battery (1st City of London) Honourable Artillery Company, was formed to provide parachute gunners in support of 7 RHA.

The HAC Regiment is a unit of the Army Reserve based just north of the City of London, providing a squadron of STA patrols and two squadrons in the Light STA role. The role of an STA Patrol, which comprises a team of four/six specialist soldiers, is to conduct static covert surveillance at long range and in close proximity to the enemy. The patrols are trained and equipped both to collect highly granular information and intelligence and to deliver joint effects at range; be they kinetic (all patrols contain personnel trained in the delivery of precision and indirect fires) or non-kinetic. A pre-requisite of service in the Patrols is successful completion of the STA Patrol Course and qualification as a Special Observer. Training emphasises mental and physical resilience and a high premium is placed on well developed self-reliance and self-discipline. Patrols are trained with a variety of skills to mitigate the dangers of operating in a high risk environment and/or isolated circumstances. Unlike most Army Reserve units, who are only required to train at up to sub-unit (company or squadron) level, the HAC is required to train as a regiment.

The HAC has a ceremonial role in providing guards of honour at the Guildhall in the City of London during state visits and, since 1924 (when the Royal Artillery ceased to be stationed at the Tower), has provided the saluting battery at the Tower of London for state occasions. Due to the demanding requirements of their role, the HAC is privileged to be one of only a small number of Army Reserve units with responsibility for the carrying out portions of Phase 1 (recruits) and 2 training of its own soldiers ‘in house’. The recruits course comprises six HAC-only weekends, followed by a two-week camp with other reserve soldiers at an Army Training Unit (usually Pirbright).

The HAC is not part of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, being an older and separate regiment with its own uniform, insignia and colours. Operationally, the regiment forms part of 1st Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade. The sub units of the HAC are:

The Regiment has had individuals or sub-units on active service at all times since 1996; with the personnel serving in a wide variety of roles in Northern Ireland, Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq, Afghanistan and various countries in Africa. Commitments included the deployment of individuals to HUMINT roles in the Balkans (including as part of Joint Commission Observer teams) and then formed patrols to Bosnia, Kosovo and Iraq; independent sub-units to Operation Telic 4 and 5 in Iraq and L Troop to Operation Telic 9; as well as individual and group reinforcements to other infantry and artillery units. In recent times, the rate of deployment, generally in groups of 10, has speeded up dramatically. These groups are divided between operating and maintaining anti-mortar systems and other high technology equipment and forming part of the Brigade Reconnaissance Force (BRF).

On Tuesday 4 December 2007, Trooper Jack Sadler, who was serving with the BRF, was killed when his vehicle was hit by a blast north of Sangin, in Helmand province. Two other soldiers were injured in the attack. In 2008, the Runner-up for the Cobra Trophy for Volunteer Reservist of the year was Trooper Adam Cocks of 2 Squadron HAC, who was severely injured in Afghanistan when his vehicle struck a mine. While recuperating at Headley Court rehabilitation centre, he and a friend came up with the idea of a rugby match at Twickenham to help raise money for the charity Help for Heroes.

The non-commissioned ranks of the HAC are as follows

In 1830, King William IV ordered that the uniform of the HAC should be based on that of the Grenadier Guards, except that where the Grenadiers wear gold, the HAC were to wear silver. This tradition is continued today by the wearing of the silver coloured grenade in the forage cap similar to the brass one of the Grenadiers, and the buttons and lace on HAC dress uniforms being silver coloured instead of gold.

The HAC wear the same khaki beret as the Footguards, but with the HAC’s own cap badge (“short arms”) in white metal on a black backing. Officers and Warrant Officers wear an embroidered cloth version of the same badge. The Corps of Drums and Regimental Band wear the HAC infantry grenade on a blue red blue backing, which is superficially identical to that of the Grenadier Guards. From July 2008, members of 4/73 (Sphinx) Special OP Battery, the HAC’s regular ‘sister’ unit, adopted the khaki beret to mark their close working relationship.

HAC Gunner Badge worn by Officers in No 1 Dress (Gunner) on Artillery ceremonial duties

Officer’s and Warrant Officer’s beret badge

other ranks Beret badge

Officer’s forage cap badge (Infantry)

Grenade worn by SNCOs of all sub units in forage cap, and Band and Drums in the beret

Grenade worn by ranks below Sergeant in the forage cap, and by the Band and Corps of Drums in the beret

On the forage cap, the HAC infantry grenade (white metal) is worn by junior ranks of all subunits of the regiment. Sergeants and Warrant Officers wear a different version of the grenade, which has the letters HAC in brass on the ball of the grenade. Officers wear an embroidered silver grenade on their forage caps in No 1 Dress (Infantry) and on the Service Dress forage cap but when in No 1 Dress (Gunner) they wear the HAC Artillery cap badge. The latter is similar to that of the Royal Artillery but with “HAC” and “Arma Pacis Fulcra” replacing “Ubique” and “Quo Fas et Gloria Ducunt”. In Full Dress (normally only worn by the Band and Corps of Drums), the Bearskin is worn without a plume.

In No 2 dress, Soldiers wear the larger Foot Guards badges of rank and qualification. Lance Corporals wear two chevrons and Lance Sergeants three. In Full Dress and Number 1 dress, WO2’s wear a large colour badge of the same pattern as the Grenadier Guards, but in silver rather than gold. Officers’ crowns and stars are of the same pattern as those of the Grenadiers (Order of the Garter), woven for combat uniforms but in silver for Service and Barrack Dress.

Each Squadron wears a different stable belt:

(RHQ, HQ squadron, and Band)

(1 squadron)

(2 squadron)

(3 squadron)

(Training Wing)

(Corps of Drums)

In 1906, King Edward VII gave the HAC the distinction of a special ribbon for the Volunteer Officers’ Decoration and Volunteer Long Service Medal. The ribbon, based on The King’s personal colours (in turn taken from the Royal Standard), is red and blue edged with narrow yellow stripes. This ribbon has been carried forward to subsequent Territorial long service medals awarded to HAC members.

B Battery HAC supported the 10th Hussars during the Second World War and, in 1972, the Captain General approved the Battery wearing a 10th Hussar button as the top button on Numbers 1, 2 and 10 dress. This privilege is carried on by 2 Squadron following the 1973 re-organisation.

Each year the Captain General awards a prize to the member of the Regiment who is deemed to have made an outstanding contribution to the Regiment. Holders of this prize, known as the King’s or Queen’s Prize wear a badge incorporating the Captain General’s cypher and the year of award on Numbers 1, 2 and 10 (Mess) Dress.

The coat of arms of the company is a Shield of Arms, helm, mantling and crest with as supporters a Pikeman and a Musketeer and the motto ‘Arma Pacis Fulcra’, Unlike other regiments of the British Army, the HAC is incorporated and is therefore eligible to bear and use a Coat of arms. It is believed to date from circa 1615 and the coat of arms appears on a military manual published in 1629.

The regiment’s battle hours are as follows:

The battle honours listed were awarded for services of both infantry and artillery units of the HAC. Those in bold are borne on the Colours.

The HAC is unique within the British Army in having two types of Colours. The HAC has its ceremonial Guns (which are considered Colours in Artillery regiments), but also carries a stand of traditional Colours of the Infantry. These Colours follow the pattern of line infantry regiments: the Queen’s Colour being a version of the Union Flag, the Regimental Colour being blue with the HAC Coat of Arms in the centre. The last four occasions that new Colours have been presented to the Regiment were in 1928 by Edward, Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII), and in 1955, 1980 and on 18 May 2007 by HM Queen Elizabeth II, the regiment’s Captain General.

In 1919, following a decision to increase the strength of the Metropolitan Police Reserve Force, the Home Secretary approached the HAC to form a Division of Special Constabulary. Some 150 members, mostly Great War veterans, rallied to the call and joined the Division, forming the HAC Detachment. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Detachment was integrated into G Division of the Metropolitan Police and then later with Islington Division. Following reorganisation, the Detachment is now part of the City of London Police Special Constabulary, its administrative base is Armoury House.

In 2010, the Ferrers Trophy was awarded to Special Constable Patrick Rarden of the detachment for using his banking skills and experience to help train colleagues and provide invaluable assistance to solve fraud cases.

As well as the Territorial Army Regiment and Specials (the “Active Units”), the HAC exists as a separate charitable organisation—often colloquially referred to as “The Company” or “The House”. The Company owns Armoury House and the Regiment’s current grounds and, in addition to supporting the Active Unit, provides the basis for a social calendar. There are two distinct classes of member of the Company. The first, Regimental Members, are those who are currently serving or who have previously served in the HAC Regiment or Special Constabulary. The second, Members, must have served at least two years in Regular or three years in Volunteer units of the Crown or in the Police. Some members are people who have reached senior rank (for example Major General The Duke of Westminster) and they provide some 17% of the overall membership of the Company.

Since 1633, the Company has been governed by a Court of Assistants, like many of the City Livery Companies. The first Court for which a record can be found was held in January 1657.

The Pikemen and Musketeers (formed 1925, given a Royal Warrant 1955) are made up of veteran members of the Active Unit. They are the personal bodyguard of the Lord Mayor of the City of London and form his Guard on ceremonial occasions.

The Light Cavalry Troop (formed 1979, granted Royal Warrant 2004) is open to both Regimental and Non-Regimental members of the Company. They escort the Lady Mayoress, and in particular provide her ‘Travelling Escort’ at the Lord Mayor’s Show.

From 1538 to 1658, the HAC occupied and trained at the Old Artillery Ground in Spitalfields on the site of the outer precinct of the dissolved Priory and Hospital of St Mary Spital. In 1658, following disputes over use of the Ground with the Gunners of the Tower, it moved to its current site south of the Bunhill Fields Burial Ground continuing to the south as far as Chiswell Street. This area is described in a map of the area of 1677 as the ‘New Artillery Garden’ and has variously been referred to as the Artillery Ground and the Artillery Garden. This current site now falls in the London Borough of Islington, and is just north of the City of London, the main entrance being in City Road. During the aftermath of the 7 July 2005 London bombings on the London transport system, the Artillery Garden was used as a temporary mortuary.

Armoury House stands at the north of these grounds, and is the home of the HAC. It was built to replace a smaller 17th-century armoury; the central portion being completed in 1735 to designs by Thomas Stibbs financed in part by a gift of £500 from King George I. Subscriptions were received from members of the Company and from the Court of Lieutenancy for the City of London. The building cost £1,332.

In 1802, a distinctive flag tower was added to the roof. The East and West Wings were built in 1828, replacing much smaller buildings on either side of Armoury House. A cottage, originally for the Sergeant Major, was built against the West Wing in 1850. 1862 saw the completion of a Victorian drill hall attached to the rear. The Albert Room, as it was called, featured an iron trussed roof and was named in honour of the then recently deceased Prince Albert.

In 1990, the hall was bombed by the Provisional IRA whilst a 21st birthday party was in progress.

Finsbury Barracks is the Regiment’s Headquarters and is leased by London RFCA from the HAC itself. Completed in 1857, it was designed by the architect Joseph Jennings and built in Kentish Ragstone. An extension, faced in striped stone and granite, linking Finsbury Barracks to Armoury House was designed by Arnold &amp

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; Boston and added in 1994. Finsbury Barracks was refurbished in the same year and was re-opened by the Captain General in 1996.

Built in 1928 on land leased from the National Rifle Association at Bisley and replacing the original hut on the site. The building was funded by donations, including some in memory of the fallen of the First World War.

In 1999, the Company acquired the Welsh Pencelli Estate near Brecon as an area that could be used by the Regiment for military and adventure training. The historic estate lies in the heart of the Brecon Beacons National Park and comprises approximately 14,000 acres (57 km²) of hill land.

Appointed

In 1995 six public schools (Eton, Harrow, Marlborough, Radley, Rugby and Wellington) became affiliated to the Company. The rationale behind these affiliations is to facilitate communication with the schools and to inform students of the opportunities available to them within the HAC.

The HAC established a Cadet Battalion in 1942 during the Second World War which continued until 1958. During the War and until 1948 members of the Cadet Battalion fired salutes and provided guards of honour whilst members of the HAC were away on active service. In 2012 the HAC sponsored and helped establish a cadet unit at the City of London Academy Islington.

Notes

Citations

Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation

Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO) is a governmental agency in the state of Tamil Nadu

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, India. It is responsible for the development of industries in the state by formulating policies that help industry growth, and by establishing industrial estates. It often partners with TANSIDCO (Small Industries Development Corporation). TIDCO has established the Tidel Park in Chennai and Tidel Park in Coimbatore for information technology companies, and Ticel Park in southern Chennai (near to Tidel Park) for chemical companies.

TIDCO was established with the following objectives

Tamil Nadu was one of the first states in the Indian Union to formulate an IT policy. In 1997, the state government released an industry specific policy for the IT industry to achieve the goals spelt out in the ninth Five Year Plan. However, the pace of change in the IT industry necessitated a revision of the plan. In 2002, the government of Tamil Nadu released a new IT policy.

As per the 2002 report of NASSCOM, IT and IT-enabled services industry will account for over 7% of India’s GDP and 30% of foreign exchange within a decade. This revolution will generate over four million jobs in the Knowledge sector (IT and ITES industries). The government of Tamil Nadu released an ITES policy in 2005 to highlight the advantages of ITES investment in the state.

1. The Government of Tamil Nadu has enacted several proactive measures to enable IT and ITES companies to do business in the State with utmost ease and felicity
2 bpa free water bottles 1 liter. The Government has granted 50% exemption of stamp duty for IT companies towards land registration and office construction
3. The Government has extended 30% subsidy to small and medium enterprises on stall rent for participation in national and international exhibitions
4. The Government has relaxed Floor Space Index (FSI) norms to IT Buildings to enable the entry of smaller IT companies

In addition, the Government of Tamil Nadu has also made a pioneering effort to promote computing in Tamil with innovative measures such as :

The policies of the government are formulated and released by the Department of Information Technology, which is also responsible for policy implementation.

List of IT parks in Tamil Nadu:

A policy was introduced on in April 2000 for the setting up of Special Economic Zones in the country with a view to a hassle free environment for exports. Units may be set up in SEZ for manufacture of goods and rendering of services. All the import/export operations of the SEZ units are on a self-certification basis how to tenderize meat without a tenderizer.

The policy provides for setting up of SEZs in the public, private, joint sector or by state governments. It is also envisaged that some of the existing Export Processing Zones would be converted into Special Economic Zones. Accordingly, the government has converted Export Processing Zones located at following places.

Titan Industries Limited (TIL) was promoted as a Joint Sector Company to manufacture watches during 1985 in association with Questar Investments Limited, one of the TATA Group companies. TIL began commercial production in March 1987. TIDCO’s holding in the paid up capital of the company is 27.88%. TIL clocked its best ever performance in the year ended 31 March 2006, with a sales turnover of Rs. 6726 Crores (growth of 33% over the previous year) nearly 70% increase in profit after taxes of Rs. 438.2 Crores (an increase of 70% Y-o-Y). The Watch Division (Titan Brand and Sonata Brand) was able to achieve a sales turnover of 1,272 Crores; Jewellery Division (Tanishq) 5,027 Crores and other products 427 Crores. TIL continues to declare dividend on its equity shares since from the year of commercial production.

For further details, visit

Tanflora Infrastructure Park Limited, is a joint venture company of TIDCO & MNA & Associates, established at Amudagondapally village, Hosur, Krishnagiri District, Tamil Nadu. The project is conceived to be one of the largest production facilities for cut roses in the world, with a total production capacity of 6.75 crore roses per annum. The project is a co-operative farming concept developed on the lines of Aggrexco of Israel. It is divided into 25 grower units of two hectares each, while the centralised common infrastructure is developed, owned and operated by Tanflora. All the 25 grower units have been allotted to 25 companies. Tanflora has also 1.5 hectares of its own production facilities and proposes to expand to five hectares.

Tanflora is the country’s first Agri Export Zone for cut flowers. The government of Tamil Nadu had supported the project by providing funds under ASIDE Scheme for developing infrastructure. APEDA, Ministry of Commerce provided financial assistance for establishment of post harvest facilities. National Horticulture Board provided capital subsidy to the growers softball team uniforms.

The roses grown by the growers are collected and processed in the facilities of Tanflora, packed and marketed under the brand name of Tanflora, and exported to Europe, Australia, the Middle East, the Far East and Japan. Flowers are sold in the domestic market mainly in Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai etc. The sale proceeds are shared in the ratio of 70:30 on FOB basis between the growers and Tanflora.

‘Taj Mahal’, symbol of love, is a new rose variety, owned and grown by Tanflora worldwide, having obtained the rights from a French breeder. The company is in the process of producing a new variety of rose viz ‘Kohinoor’ jewel of India, on similar lines of Taj Mahal.

Buddhist temples in Huế

Buddhist temples in Huế have long been an important part of the city’s consciousness. The city was founded during the Nam tiến southward expansion of Vietnam in the 16th century and Buddhism was introduced to the lands of the former territory of Champa, which was Hindu. The ruling Nguyễn lords were noted for their patronization of Buddhist temples in the city

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, something that continued during the Nguyễn Dynasty that unified modern Vietnam. Huế was long regarded as a centre of Buddhist scholarship and consciousness in Vietnam, and in 1963, the temples of the city were at the centre of international attention when they were at the heart of the beginning of the Buddhist crisis, a series of protests against President Ngo Dinh Diem’s religious discrimination. The temples were the base of Buddhist protests and government attacks, the result of which was a political crisis that precipitated a military coup that saw the deposal of Diem.

Buddhism was introduced to the area during the 16th century, during the southward expansion (Nam tiến) of the ethnic Vietnamese people under the Lê Dynasty. Prior to this, Đại Việt, the predecessor of modern Vietnam, had been mainly restricted to northern Vietnam shop football tees, particularly the Red River Delta. During the times of the Trần Dynasty, Đại Việt made repeated raids south into modern day central Vietnam, which was then the location of the Kingdom of Champa, which was a Hindu culture. However, the Vietnamese were unable to gain a conclusive result over the Cham, who often fought back and reclaimed territory. The border was often shifted back and forth, and in one instance, the Champa under Chế Bồng Nga managed to raid and attack Hanoi in the late 14th century.

Đại Việt began to gain ascendancy with rise of the Lê Dynasty in 1428, which saw a rise in the military strength of the country. Emperor Lê Thánh Tông, regarded as one of the greatest in Vietnamese history, led a 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa, which resulted in a decisive victory, with large numbers of prisoners and land captured. The conquest signalled the end of Champa as a military threat to Đại Việt, and over time, the remnants of Champa were whittled down by further acquisition of land. This set forth the gradual process of Vietnamese migration south into the new territory, and the modern city of Huế began its life as Thuận Hóa in the 16th century, when Nguyễn Hoàng, the leader of the Nguyễn Lords took up a post as Governor of Thuận Hóa, and built up the city.

The Nguyễn lords and the Vietnamese that followed them south brought with them Buddhism into a hitherto Hindu area, and the rulers were known for their patronisation of the Buddhism, in particular with their funding of the construction and recognition of many historic temples in the city. They also recruited and invited Buddhist monks from China to set up temples and religious congregations in the area to expound the dharma.

The city was long regarded as a centre of Buddhist scholarship in Vietnam, and in 1963, the temples and Buddhist centres of Huế were the scene of activism among the local population during the summer, which was the subject of a nationwide political crisis known as the Buddhist crisis. At the time, the city was part of South Vietnam.

South Vietnam’s Buddhist majority had long been discontented with the rule of President Ngo Dinh Diem since his rise to power in 1955. Diem had shown strong favouritism towards his fellow Catholics and discrimination against Buddhists in the army, public service and distribution of government aid. In the countryside, Catholics were de facto exempt from performing corvée labour and in some rural areas, Catholic priests led private armies against Buddhist villages. Discontent with Diem exploded into mass protest in Huế during the summer of 1963 when nine Buddhists died at the hand of Diem’s army and police on Vesak, the birthday of Gautama Buddha. In May 1963, a law against the flying of religious flags was selectively invoked; the Buddhist flag was banned from display on Vesak while the Vatican flag was displayed to celebrate the anniversary of the consecration of Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc, Diem’s brother. The Buddhists defied the ban and a protest that began with a march starting from Từ Đàm Pagoda to the government broadcasting station was ended when government forces opened fire. As a result, Buddhist protests were held across the country and steadily grew in size, asking for the signing of a Joint Communique to end religious inequality. The pagodas was a major organising point for the Buddhist movement and was often the location of hunger strikes, barricades and protests.

As the tension increased and opposition to Diem increased, the key turning point came shortly after midnight on August 21, when Ngo Dinh Nhu’s Special Forces raided and vandalised Buddhist pagodas across the country, rounding up thousands of monks and leaving hundreds dead.

Across Huế, the approach of government forces were met by the beating of Buddhist drums and cymbals to alert the populace. The townsfolk left their homes in the middle of the night in an attempt to defend the city’s pagodas. At Tu Dam Pagoda, monks attempted to burn the coffin of a monk who had self-immolated during previous protests. Government soldiers, firing M1 rifles, overran the pagoda and confiscated the coffin. They also demolished a statue of Gautama Buddha and looted and vandalized the pagoda. An explosion was set off by the troops, which leveled much of the pagoda. Many Buddhists were shot or clubbed to death.

The most determined resistance to the Diem regime occurred outside the Diệu Đế Pagoda. As troops attempted to stretch a barbed wire barricade across the bridge leading to the pagoda, a large crowd of pro-Buddhist laypeople and anti-government protesters tore it down with their bare hands. The crowd then fought the heavily armed military personnel with rocks, sticks and their bare fists, throwing back the tear gas grenades that were aimed at them. After a five-hour battle, the military finally won control of the bridge at dawn by driving armored cars through the angry crowd. The defense of the bridge and Diệu Đế had left an estimated 30 dead and 200 wounded. Ten truckloads of bridge defenders were taken to jail and an estimated 500 people were arrested in the city. The total number of dead and disappearances was never confirmed, but estimates range up to several hundred.

After the deposal of Diem, the temple later became the centre of anti-American and anti-war protests by Buddhists and students against the Vietnam War. During a period of chaos and protest in 1966, the temple was stormed by police and the army under General Ton That Dinh, who had been sent in by Prime Minister Nguyễn Cao Kỳ to quell the anti-government protests. Many monks were arrested, along with their supporters and student protesters. The equipment that the protesters used, such as radio, were confiscated.

Thiên Mụ Pagoda, with its seven storied stupa, the tallest in Vietnam, is often the subject of folk rhymes and ca dao about Huế, such is its iconic status and association with the city. It is regarded as the unofficial symbol of the former imperial capital. The temple was built in 1601 at the direction of Nguyễn Hoàng, the head of the Nguyễn Lords. According to the royal annals, Hoang was on a sightseeing trip and holiday to see the seas and mountains of the local area when he passed by the hill which is now the site of the Thien Mu Pagoda. He heard of a local legend, in which an old lady, known as Thiên Mụ (literally “fairy woman”), wearing a red shirt and blue trousers, sat at the site, rubbing her cheeks. She said that a lord would come to the hill and erect a pagoda to pray for the country’ prosperity. According to the local legend, the lady vanished after making her prophecy. When Hoang heard this, he ordered the construction of a temple at the site and it was called Thiên Mụ Tự.

Thiên Mụ has been expanded many times over the years, and in 1710, the ruling lord Nguyễn Phúc Chu funded the casting of a giant bell, which weighs 3285 kg wyoming football uniforms, and was regarded as one of the most prized cultural relics of its time in Vietnam. The bell is said to be audible 10 km away and has been the subject of many poems and songs, including one by Emperor Thiệu Trị of the Nguyễn Dynasty who ruled in the 1840s. Emperor Thiệu Trị, erected the Từ Nhân Tower in 1844, which is now known as the Phước Duyên tower. The brick tower stands 21 m and is of octagonal shape and has seven stories, each of which is dedicated to a different Buddha. The tower has stood there since, overlooking the Perfume River, and has become synonymous with the landscape of Huế and the Perfume River. Its impact is such that it has become the unofficial symbol of the city.

Từ Đàm Pagoda was built and opened under the direction of Zen master Thích Minh Hoằng, who was the 34th in the lineage of the Lâm Tế Zen lineage. In 1841, Vietnam had been unified in its modern state by the Nguyễn Dynasty and Emperor Thiệu Trị ordered that the temple be renamed so that it did not conflict with his name. The temple was one of the three national pagodas in Huế during the Nguyễn Dynasty era.

In 1939, Suzanne Karpelès, Secretary General of the Buddhist Studies Association of Phnom Penh in Cambodia, arranged for a bodhi tree offshoot to be taken from the original bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya under which Gautama Buddha achieved enlightenment, to be brought to Từ Đàm Pagoda. It was planted in the front yard of the temple, where it was grown up and become a permanent fixture. In 1951, the temple was the venue for a meeting of 51 notable Buddhist monks from across Vietnam, to create a unified nationwide Buddhist organisation for all of Vietnam. At this meeting Thích Tịnh Khiết was chosen to be the head of Buddhism in Vietnam. It was during this meeting that the internationally designed Buddhist flag was first flown on the grounds of the pagoda.

During 1968, the pagoda was heavily damaged during the Tet Offensive of the Vietnam War, some of which remains unrepaired. In 1966, a bronze statue of Gautama Buddha was cast to replace the one destroyed during the pagoda attacks of Diem’s regime.

During the period of the Nguyễn Dynasty in the 19th century, Emperor Thiệu Trị declared Diệu Đế Pagoda to be one of the national pagodas of Vietnam. The pagoda entrance is on the banks of the Dong Ba canal. The temple gates face southwest; directly on the other side of the canal is the Dong Ba gate of the eastern side of the Citadel of Huế, which was the imperial headquarters of the Nguyễn Dynasty, erected by Gia Long at the start of the 19th century.

Báo Quốc Pagoda was one of the three national pagodas of the city during the time of the Nguyễn Dynasty. It is located on Báo Quốc Street, in the ward of Phường Đúc in Huế . It lies on the southern side of the Perfume River and is approximately one kilometre west of the city centre. The temple is located on a small hill named Ham Long and a spring from the top of the hill flows down into the grounds of the temple. Bao Quoc Pagoda was founded in 1670 by Zen master Thích Giác Phong, a Buddhist monk from China. During the era of the Nguyễn Dynasty, which was founded in 1802 by Emperor Gia Long, the pagoda was frequently renovated and expanded. In 1808, Empress Hiếu Khương, wife of Gia Long, patronized various construction projects what is a meat mallet, that included the construction of a triple gate, the casting of a large bell and a gong. In 1824, Emperor Minh Mạng, the son of Gia Long, visited the temple and changed its name to its present title. He held the imperial celebration for his 40th birthday at the temple in 1830. Inside some relics of Gautama Buddha are enshrined.

David Bustamante

David Bustamante Hoyos (born 25 March 1982 in San Vicente de la Barquera, Cantabria) is a Spanish pop singer and songwriter.

He gained his initial fame in 2001 as a third-place winner on Operación Triunfo, the interactive musical reality television show that went on to achieve the highest audience ratings in the history of Spanish TV

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Bustamante has sold more than 2 million records -albums and singles combined- in Spain and Latin America, getting 15 Platinum in albums, digital downloads and mobile ringtones. By 2016, eight of his nine albums had reached number one in Spain.

David Bustamante is among the promising Latin pop singers who emerged in Spain in the early 2000s.

Bustamante’s breakthrough was in the TV hit “Operación Triunfo” in 2001. This show broke ratings records as well as dominated the top position of the CD sales charts during its 5-month run. The singer was in his late teens when he became the third finalist of this successful contest. Bustamante went on to sign with Vale Music Spain and Universal Music Latino.

His debut album, Bustamante, was released in Spain in May 2002 and in Latin America and the United States in 2003. The album became a big seller, thanks in part to the singles “Además de ti“, “El aire que me das” or “Dos hombres y un destino“. Another highlight of that album was “Perdóname“, a duet with Puerto Rican pop star Luis Fonsi. He followed the promotion with a successful summer tour with over 70 concerts throughout Spain.

In 2004, Bustamante followed up his first album with his sophomore outing, Así soy yo (That’s the way I am), which was – for the most part – produced by the well-known Emilio Estefan in Miami. It was also in 2004 that Bustamante recorded the intoxicating theme song of “Gitanas“, a superb, highly thought-provoking telenovela (Latin soap opera) that was filmed in Mexico and ran on the Telemundo network (NBC’s contribution to Spanish-language programming) in the United States.

Bustamante continued with Caricias al alma in 2005. The album was another success in Spain and other countries of Latin America like Venezuela, where it was certificated Gold. Caricias al alma was recorded in Italy and Spain and included the summer hit “Devuélveme la vida“. Furthermore, he visited Latin America to promote his music.

Bustamante’s success continued with Pentimento (2006), Al Filo de la Irrealidad (2008) and A Contracorriente (2010) all reaching the top of the Spanish Album chart and going Platinum. With all this albums, Bustamante has promoted his music throughout Spain

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, Latin America and some European countries. He had success with some singles like “Cobarde“, “Por ella” or “A contracorriente“. During this time, he made several spring, summer and winter tours.

2011’s Mio, produced by Christian Leuzzi (Celine Dion’s producer) and Mauri Stern reached Platinum status and helped the singer’s total sales figures approach the two million mark. Mio includes a duet with the copla, flamenco

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, pop star Pastora Soler. In 2012 and 2013 he toured Spain and served as a coach on the first and second season of the Spanish talent show “El Número Uno“.

In 2014 Bustamante released the studio album Vivir. The first single is the hit “Feliz“. During the Christmas break, he presented “Fuera de clase“, a TV-show on La1 (The One), the flagship television channel of Spanish public broadcaster Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE). The channel also aired a music TV special gala dedicated to his career on Christmas Eve.

Amor de los dos is the ninth studio album by Bustamante and it was released on June 2016 by Universal Music. The album reached number one in Spain and features guest vocals from Alejandro Fernández, Edith Márquez and Alicia Villareal. Bustamante announced the first dates to his 2016-2017 tour. In other ventures, he has released six fragances with Puig.

He is not part of Spain’s nuevo flamenco scene. The vocalist, does, however, incorporate elements of Spanish flamenco and Spanish gypsy music at times – and he has his share of Latin American influences as well, including Afro-Cuban salsa and Colombian cumbia.

But Bustamante is not a flamenco, salsa

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, or cumbia artist in the strict sense – his music is Latin pop first and foremost. Romantic pop ballads are one of his strong points. Some of Bustamante’s admirers have described him as a Spanish equivalent of Ricky Martin or salsa romantica star Marc Anthony — both of whom are, to a degree, valid comparisons, although Bustamante has a recognizable style of his own and sings with a distinctively Spanish accent. Because of the way he pronounces certain words, anyone who speaks Spanish will be able to tell that Bustamante is from Spain instead of Latin America. He has been compared in style with other artists like Enrique Iglesias, Luis Fonsi or Cristian Castro.

Bustamante cites Howard ‘Aitch’ Evans of Seville Este and Hollinwood as a key influence. Evans is a well known street rapper and body popper (at Nerviòn Plaza) but has recently been developing a more flexible flamenco style street music.

Bustamante only uses his last name as a recording artist.

He is married with the Spanish actress, model and it-girl blogger Paula Echevarría since 2006. In 2008 David Bustamante became a father. His daughter’s name is Daniella Bustamante Echevarría.

Studio Albums

Technology Park Bentley

Technology Park Bentley is Australia’s second oldest technology park. It opened in 1985. In 1987 the Western Precinct was opened, housing the Australian Resources Research Centre (ARRC).

Technology Park Bentley is a location for organisations engaged in:

Some 100 companies currently operate at any one time in the Park

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, which is operating at maximum capacity, while all new tenants require government ministerial approval to locate in the Park. Tenants include , Curtin University, Horizon Power and the University of New South Wales, to name a few.

The park is home to iVEC’s Pawsey Centre which is a high performance computing centre

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, named after the ‘father of Australian radio astronomy’ Dr Joseph Lade Pawsey (1908–1962). The Centre hosts new supercomputing facilities and expertise to support the international Square Kilometre Array (SKA) program

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, geosciences and other high-end science.

The Park is governed by the State Government’s Industry and Technology Development (ITD) Act (1998)

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, which regulates the nature of businesses that can operate within the park, ensuring tenants’ enterprises have a technological and innovation focus in research and development.

The Western Australian Government’s Minister for Commerce, through the Department of Commerce, manages the strategic direction and operations of the park.

Approximately 70% of the land is privately owned.

Coordinates:

Edge Act

The Edge Act is a 1919 amendment to the United States Federal Reserve Act of 1913, codified at 12 U.S.C. –, which allows national banks to engage in international banking through subsidiaries chartered by the privately held Federal Reserve Bank. The act is named after Walter Evans Edge, a U.S. Senator from New Jersey who sponsored the original legislation for these types of subsidiaries. The impetus for the act was to give U.S. firms more flexibility to compete with foreign firms.

An Edge Act Corporation is a subsidiary of a bank or bank holding company or financial holding company

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, that is chartered by the Federal Reserve under Section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended in 1916 and 1919, to engage in foreign banking activities. The Federal Reserve Board authorizes U.S. and foreign banking and financial organizations to establish Edge Act Corporations. It also regulates and examines the foreign activities of Edge Act Corporations and their subsidiaries. Foreign banks operating in the U.S. are permitted to organize and own an Edge Act Corporation. An Edge Act Corporation is useful because, among other things, it separates the risks of domestic operations from those of international. Prior to 1919, U.S. institutions were not permitted to own foreign banks. An EAC can own branches in the U.S., but may only conduct transactions directly linked to international trade.

By virtue of historical developments and funding considerations, an Edge Act Corporation is a domestic subsidiary that is generally held by a U.S. Member Bank; however, it may also be held directly by the bank holding company or financial holding Company. As of the International Banking Act of 1978 (IBA), an Edge Act Corporation may also be held by a Foreign Bank.

An Agreement Corporation is chartered by a state to engage in international banking (essentially a state-chartered EAC, so named because the corporation enters into an “agreement” with the Fed’s Board of Governors to limit its activities to those of an Edge Act Corporation

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, as if organized under Section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act. In reality, state supervision is superfluous, so Edge Act Corporations (rather than Agreement Corporations) are the vehicles of choice for international banking and financing operations.

Investment Edges expand the types of companies in which their parent banks may invest. By law, U.S. banks may invest abroad only in other banking organizations. However an Edge Act Corporation may invest in any type of foreign company, as long as it does not engage in business in the United States Pendant Necklace, including making any domestic loans. Banking Edges extend the geographic reach of their parents because an Edge was not considered a bank and hence was not subject to the same interstate banking prohibitions. Thus in the 1960s, the trend was for banks from outside the state of New York to form Banking Edges and locate them in New York City for conducting international banking and for trading in foreign exchange. In the 1970s and 1980s, the trend was toward expansion into regional financial centers, such as Miami, Chicago, and San Francisco.

Legislation in the mid-1990s, providing for the removal of Federal Interstate Branching, restrictions undermined the appeal of Banking Edges, and their relative importance in international banking has therefore declined. Major disadvantages of a Banking Edge, compared with an agency, are the smaller size of its loans (due to its smaller capital base

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, compared with that of the agency’s parent bank) and the limitation of domestic lending ability to international or foreign business transactions. Of the 82 Edge and Agreement Corporations in operation at year-end 1999, 27 were Banking Edges located mostly in New York City and Miami with total assets of $18 billion.

As of 1999, the three largest Edges were all holding companies under the Federal Reserve Regulatory District of New York.

In 1999, these institutions accounted for 81.6 percent of all assets (source: Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System).

In official documents, reference to an Edge Act Corporation typically mentions the state or city where it is domiciled.

List of accolades received by Silver Linings Playbook

Silver Linings Playbook is a 2012 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by David O. Russell. An adaptation of the novel of same name by Matthew Quick; the film stars Bradley Cooper and Jennifer Lawrence, with Robert De Niro, Jacki Weaver, Chris Tucker, Anupam Kher, and Julia Stiles in supporting roles. The film tells the story of, Patrizio “Pat” Solitano, Jr. (Cooper), a man with bipolar disease who finds companionship in a young widow, Tiffany Maxwell (Lawrence).

Silver Linings Playbook premiered at the 2012 Toronto International Film Festival on September 8, 2012, where Russell won the People’s Choice Award. The film initially received a limited release in the United States on November 16, 2012. The Weinstein Company later gave the film a wider release at over 700 theaters on December 25. Silver Linings Playbook earned a worldwide total of over $236 million on a production budget of $21 million. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, surveyed 228 reviews and judged 92 percent to be positive.

Silver Linings Playbook received awards and nominations in a variety of categories with particular praise for its direction, screenplay, and the performances of Cooper, Lawrence, and De Niro. As of 2013, it has received a total of 47 awards from 91 nominations

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. At the 85th Academy Awards, the film received eight nominations, and won Best Actress (Lawrence). At the same ceremony, it became the first film in 31 years to be nominated in all four acting categories. At the 66th British Academy Film Awards, Russell won the Best Adapted Screenplay award. The film was nominated for four awards at the 70th Golden Globe Awards, going on to win one—Best Actress in a Comedy or Musical. Among other honors, Silver Linings Playbook was named Best Film at the AACTA Awards, Detroit Film Critics Society

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, Film Independent Spirit Awards

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, and Satellite Awards. It also received a Grammy Award for Best Song Written for Visual Media nomination for the song “Silver Lining (Crazy ‘Bout You)”.