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Калиновское сельское поселение (Белгородская область)

 Россия

Белгородская область

Красногвардейский

Калиново

7 населённых пунктов

847 чел. 

   • процент от населения района — 2,26 %

Координаты административного центра
  &nbsp soccer goalkeeper jerseys;Координаты:   &nbsp black and football socks;

20 декабря 2004

Волков Николай Семёнович

MSK+0 (UTC+3)

31

Кали́новское се́льское поселе́ние&nbsp football stockings buy online;— муниципальное образование в Красногвардейском районе Белгородской области.

Административный центр — село Калиново.

Калиновское сельское поселение образовано 20 декабря 2004 года в соответствии с Законом Белгородской области № 159.

Городское поселение город Бирюч
Валуйчанское сельское поселение • Верхнепокровское сельское поселение • Верхососенское сельское поселение • Веселовское сельское поселение • Засосенское сельское поселение • Калиновское сельское поселение • Коломыцевское сельское поселение • Ливенское сельское поселение • Марьевское сельское поселение • Никитовское сельское поселение • Новохуторное сельское поселение • Палатовское сельское поселение • Стрелецкое сельское поселение • Утянское сельское поселение

KHangMan

KHangMan is an educational computer game designed for young children based on the classic Hangman game. It is part of the KDE Software Compilation, specifically, in the kdeedu package black and football socks.

The application features four themes (sea, winter, bee soccer retro jerseys, and desert). In the sea theme, each incorrect guess makes a lighthouse project another piece of the hangman. In the winter theme, a snowman is partially melted after each incorrect guess guys in football socks. In the bee theme, a yellow hangman is created in the background. In the desert theme, a hangman is constructed next to a cactus. The player guesses letters one by one to attempt to figure out the word given. After ten incorrect guesses, the player loses and the word is revealed. A hint for each word can be activated in the options. Words are available in more than 30 languages and 18 categories.

The program was available only for Linux operating systems, but with the beta release of KDE for Windows, it is now available on Microsoft Windows.

Programming paradigm

Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages according to the style of computer programming. Features of various programming languages determine which programming paradigms they belong to; as a result, some languages fall into only one paradigm, while others fall into multiple paradigms. Some paradigms are concerned primarily with implications for the execution model of the language, such as allowing side effects, or whether the sequence of operations is defined by the execution model. Other paradigms are concerned primarily with the way that code is organized, such as grouping code into units along with the state that is modified by the code. Yet others are concerned primarily with the style of syntax and grammar.

Common programming paradigms include imperative which allows side effects, functional which does not allow side effects, declarative which does not state the order in which operations execute, object-oriented which groups code together with the state the code modifies, procedural which groups code into functions, logic which has a particular style of execution model coupled to a particular style of syntax and grammar, and symbolic programming which has a particular style of syntax and grammar.

For example, languages that fall into the imperative paradigm have two main features: they state the order in which operations take place, with constructs that explicitly control that order, and they allow side effects, in which state can be modified at one point in time, within one unit of code, and then later read at a different point in time inside a different unit of code. The communication between the units of code is not explicit. Meanwhile, in object-oriented programming, code is organized into objects that contain state that is only modified by the code that is part of the object. Most object oriented languages are also imperative languages. In contrast, languages that fit the declarative paradigm do not state the order in which to execute operations. Instead, they supply a number of operations that are available in the system, along with the conditions under which each is allowed to execute. The implementation of the language’s execution model tracks which operations are free to execute and chooses the order on its own.

Just as software engineering (as a process) is defined by differing methodologies, so the programming languages (as models of computation) are defined by differing paradigms. Some languages are designed to support one paradigm (Smalltalk supports object-oriented programming, Haskell supports functional programming), while other programming languages support multiple paradigms (such as Object Pascal, C++, Java, C#, Scala, Visual Basic, Common Lisp, Scheme, Perl, Python, Ruby, Oz and F#). For example, programs written in C++ or Object Pascal can be purely procedural, purely object-oriented, or they can contain elements of both or other paradigms. Software designers and programmers decide how to use those paradigm elements.

In object-oriented programming, programs are treated as a collection of interacting objects. In functional programming, programs are treated as a sequence of stateless function evaluations. When programming computers or systems with many processors, in process-oriented programming, programs are treated as sets of concurrent processes acting on logically shared data structures.

Many programming paradigms are as well known for the techniques they forbid as for those they enable. For instance jumper fluff remover, pure functional programming disallows use of side-effects, while structured programming disallows use of the goto statement. Partly for this reason, new paradigms are often regarded as doctrinaire or overly rigid by those accustomed to earlier styles. Yet, avoiding certain techniques can make it easier to prove theorems about the correctness of programs, or simply to understand the program behavior.

Programming paradigms can also be compared with programming models which allow invoking an external execution model by using only an API. Programming models can also be classified into paradigms, based on features of the execution model.

For parallel computing, using a programming model instead of a language is common. The reason is that details of the parallel hardware leak into the abstractions used to program the hardware. This causes the programmer to have to map patterns in the algorithm onto patterns in the execution model (which have been inserted due to leakage of hardware into the abstraction). As a consequence, no one parallel programming language fits well to all computation problems. It is thus more convenient to use a base sequential language and insert API calls to parallel execution models, via a programming model. Such parallel programming models can be classified according to abstractions that reflect the hardware, such as shared memory, distributed memory with message passing, notions of “place” visible in the code, and so forth. These can be considered flavors of programming paradigm that apply only to parallel languages and parallel programming models.

Some programming language researchers criticise the notion of paradigms as a classification of programming languages, e.g. Krishnamurthi. They argue that many programming languages cannot be strictly classified into one paradigm, but rather include features from several paradigms.

Different approaches to programming have developed over time, being identified as such either at the time or retrospectively. An early approach consciously identified as such is structured programming, advocated since the mid 1960s. The concept of a “programming paradigm” as such dates at least to 1978, in the Turing Award lecture of Robert W. Floyd, entitled The Paradigms of Programming, which cites the notion of paradigm as used by Thomas Kuhn in his The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962).

The lowest level programming paradigms are machine code, which directly represents the instructions (the contents of program memory) as a sequence of numbers, and assembly language where the machine instructions are represented by mnemonics and memory addresses can be given symbolic labels. These are sometimes called first- and second-generation languages.

In the 1960s, assembly languages were developed to support library COPY and quite sophisticated conditional macro generation and preprocessing abilities, CALL to (subroutines), external variables and common sections (globals), enabling significant code re-use and isolation from hardware specifics via use of logical operators such as READ/WRITE/GET/PUT. Assembly was, and still is, used for time critical systems and often in embedded systems as it gives the most direct control of what the machine does.

The next advance was the development of procedural languages. These third-generation languages (the first described as high-level languages) use vocabulary related to the problem being solved. For example,

All these languages follow the procedural paradigm. That is, they describe, step by step, exactly the procedure that should, according to the particular programmer at least, be followed to solve a specific problem. The efficacy and efficiency of any such solution are both therefore entirely subjective and highly dependent on that programmer’s experience, inventiveness, and ability.

Following the widespread use of procedural languages, object-oriented programming (OOP) languages were created, such as Simula, Smalltalk, C++, C#, Eiffel, and Java. In these languages, data and methods to manipulate it are kept as one unit called an object. The only way that another object or user can access the data is via the object’s methods. Thus, the inner workings of an object may be changed without affecting any code that uses the object. There is still some controversy raised by Alexander Stepanov, Richard Stallman and other programmers, concerning the efficacy of the OOP paradigm versus the procedural paradigm. The need for every object to have associative methods leads some skeptics to associate OOP with software bloat; an attempt to resolve this dilemma came through polymorphism.

Because object-oriented programming is considered a paradigm, not a language, it is possible to create even an object-oriented assembler language black and football socks. High Level Assembly (HLA) is an example of this that fully supports advanced data types and object-oriented assembly language programming – despite its early origins. Thus custom softball uniforms, differing programming paradigms can be seen rather like motivational memes of their advocates, rather than necessarily representing progress from one level to the next. Precise comparisons of the efficacy of competing paradigms are frequently made more difficult because of new and differing terminology applied to similar entities and processes together with numerous implementation distinctions across languages.

Literate programming, as a form of imperative programming, structures programs as a human-centered web, as in a hypertext essay: documentation is integral to the program, and the program is structured following the logic of prose exposition, rather than compiler convenience.

Independent of the imperative branch, declarative programming paradigms were developed. In these languages the computer is told what the problem is, not how to solve the problem – the program is structured as a collection of properties to find in the expected result, not as a procedure to follow. Given a database or a set of rules, the computer tries to find a solution matching all the desired properties. An archetype of a declarative language is the fourth generation language SQL, and the family of functional languages and logic programming.

Functional programming is a subset of declarative programming. Programs written using this paradigm use functions, blocks of code intended to behave like mathematical functions. Functional languages discourage changes in the value of variables through assignment, making a great deal of use of recursion instead.

The logic programming paradigm views computation as automated reasoning over a corpus of knowledge. Facts about the problem domain are expressed as logic formulae, and programs are executed by applying inference rules over them until an answer to the problem is found, or the collection of formulae is proved inconsistent.

Symbolic programming is a paradigm that describes programs able to manipulate formulas and program components as data. Programs can thus effectively modify themselves, and appear to “learn”, making them suited for applications such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, natural language processing and computer games. Languages that support this paradigm include Lisp and Prolog.

A multi-paradigm programming language is a programming language that supports more than one programming paradigm. The design goal of such languages is to allow programmers to use the most suitable programming style and associated language constructs for a given job, considering that no single paradigm solves all problems in the easiest or most efficient way.

One example is C#, which includes imperative and object-oriented paradigms, together with a certain level of support for functional programming with features like delegates (allowing functions to be treated as first-order objects), type inference, anonymous functions and Language Integrated Query. Other examples are F# and Scala, which provide similar functionality to C# but also include full support for functional programming (including currying, pattern matching, algebraic data types, lazy evaluation, tail recursion, immutability, etc.). Perhaps the most extreme example is Oz, which has subsets that adhere to logic (Oz descends from logic programming), functional, object-oriented, dataflow concurrent, and other paradigms. Oz was designed over a ten-year period to combine in a harmonious way concepts that are traditionally associated with different programming paradigms. Lisp, while often taught as a functional language, is known for its malleability and thus its ability to engulf many paradigms.

Jean de Bonmarché

Jean de Bonmarché (* um 1522 wahrscheinlich in Douai (Nordfrankreich); † September 1570 in Madrid) war ein franko-flämischer Komponist und Kapellmeister der Renaissance.

Über die Jugend- und Ausbildungszeit von Jean de Bonmarché sind keine Informationen überliefert. Der erste Beleg über ihn stammt von der Universität Löwen, wo er im Jahr 1547 zum „Doktor der freien Künste“ promovierte. Außerdem ist bekannt, dass er ab 1560/61 maître des enfants (Leiter der Chorknaben) an der Kathedrale Notre-Dame von Cambrai gewesen ist. Später studierte er noch Rechtswissenschaft an der von König Philipp II. gegründeten Universität Douai und promovierte zum Doktor der Rechte. Falls er mit der Person mit dem ähnlichen Namen „Bonmarchié“ identisch ist, war er später auch Dekan der Kirche Saint-Pierre in Lille.

Während seiner Amtszeit als Leiter der Chorknaben in Cambrai suchte Herzogin Margarethe von Parma, Statthalterin der Niederlande, für den spanischen König Philipp II. einen Nachfolger für den verstorbenen Leiter der Hofkapelle in Madrid, Pierre de Manchicourt, und holte über Bonmarché Informationen ein. Aus dem Brief Margarethes von Parma aus Brüssel vom 30. November 1564 an Philipp II. geht hervor, dass Bonmarché um diese Zeit über 40 Jahre alt war und als Komponist einen guten Namen hatte, auch wenn er nur eine schwache Stimme besaß. Auf Grund der Empfehlung Margarethes hat der Komponist am 17. Dezember 1564 die Annahme der Stelle zugesagt; er verließ die Niederlande am 14. April 1565 und reiste zusammen mit einem Sänger und vier Chorknaben nach Madrid, wo er am 8. Juni 1565 ankam und die Stelle des Hofkapellmeisters antrat. Am 28. Oktober 1568 übertrug ihm der spanische König zusätzlich das Dekanat von Saint-Pierre in Lille; wenige Monate später, am 9. Mai 1569, wurde er auf Veranlassung des Königs als Begünstigter für die Pfründe in der Stadt Béthune eingetragen.

In einem Brief von Philipp II. an den Herzog von Alba, Generalgouverneur der Niederlande, vom 16 black and football socks. September 1570 bat der König, ihm einen neuen Kapellmeister zu entsenden, weil der bisherige einige Tage zuvor verstorben sei. Dieser Brief belegt den Tod des Komponisten in der ersten Septemberhälfte des Jahres 1570.

Eine einzelne Motette von Bonmarché, „Constitues eos principes“, ist in einer gedruckten Sammlung überliefert. Es ist ein eindrucksvoller vierfacher Kanon, in dem ein notierter vierstimmiger Chorsatz sich zu einem kanonisch gesetzten zweiten Chor erweitert. Die Archive der Alten Kathedrale von Cambrai enthalten Aufzeichnungen über Zahlungen an den Komponisten für eine Motette zum Fest des Heiligen Antonius vom Jahr 1561, für eine weitere zum Fest „St. Claude“ sowie für Hymnen und Motetten, die zum Fest des Heiligen Lukas komponiert wurden. Die Kathedrale besaß auch ein Te Deum mit dem Titel „Pater de Saint-Claire“ sowie eine siebenstimmige Messe, die beide im Jahr 1568 kopiert wurden. All diese Werke gelten heute als verloren. Das Inventarverzeichnis der Chorbücher des königlichen Palastes in Madrid erwähnt zwei Messen und eine Motette von Bonmarché; ob diese Werke im Bestand auch vorhanden sind tenderizers in baking, ist nicht gesichert.