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Schaarbeeks Biermuseum

Louis Bertrandlaan 33-35

Het Schaarbeeks Biermuseum, of het biermuseum van Schaarbeek cheap bpa free water bottles, is een museum waar Belgische bieren centraal staan in de gemeente Schaarbeek in Brussel. Het museum is een vereniging zonder winstoogmerk (vzw), gesticht op 9 maart 1993 en officieel geopend op 25 maart 1994. Het Brussels waterproof bag smartphone, folklorisch personage Pogge leidt de bezoekers via pancartes rond.

Het museum herbergt een collectie van meer dan 1000 flesjes verschillende Belgische bieren met bijhorend glas. Er worden verscheidene dingen tentoongesteld: oude machines waar bier mee gemaakt werd, uithangborden hydration belt reviews, presenteerbladen steel water glass, een archief van bestaande en verdwenen brouwerijen en een gereconstrueerde herberg uit 1900-1930.

“Schaerbeekoise” is een amberkleuring bier van 9° dat speciaal ter ere van het museum geproduceerd wordt door brouwerij Brasserie de l’Abbaye des Rocs.

Het museum is geopend op woensdag en zaterdag van 14.00 tot 18.00 uur.

Een greep uit de collectie

Evocatie van een oud dorpscafé

Flessenvuller en oude brouwkuip

Hwarang

Hwarang, also known as Flowering Knights, were an elite group of male youth in Silla, an ancient Korean kingdom that lasted until the 10th century. There were educational institutions as well as social clubs where members gathered for all aspects of study, originally for arts and culture as well as religious teachings stemming mainly from Buddhism. Chinese sources referred only to the physical beauty of the “Flower Youths”. Originally, the hwarang were known for their use of make-up and cosmetic decorations and accessories. The history of the hwarang was not widely known until after the liberation of 1945, after which the hwarang became elevated to a symbolic importance.

The Hwarang were also referred to as Hyangdo (fragrant ones or incense men), the word hwarang and its colloquial derivatives being used for everything from playboy to shaman or husband of a female shaman. The word remained in common use until the 12th century but with more derogatory connotations.

Information on the Hwarang are mainly found in the histories Samguk Sagi (1145) and Samguk Yusa (ca. 1285), and the partially extant Haedong Goseungjeon (1215), a compilation of biographies of famous monks of the Three Kingdoms.

All three of these works cite primary sources no longer extant, including: 1) a memorial stele to Nallang (presumably a Hwarang based upon the suffix nang) by the 9th–10th century Silla scholar Choe Chiwon; 2) an early Tang account of Silla titled the Xinluo guoji by the Tang official Ling Hucheng; and 3) Hwarang Segi (화랑세기, 花郞世記, Chronicle of the Hwarang) by Kim Daemun, compiled in the early 8th century. In the late 1980s, an alleged Hwarang Segi manuscript was discovered in Gimhae, South Korea, which a scholar Richard McBride regards as a forgery.

According to the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, two bands of females called Wonhwa (원화, 源花, “original flowers”) preceded the Hwarang. The precise nature and activities of the Wonhwa are also unclear, with some scholars positing they may have actually been court beauties or courtesans. However, considering that they were trained in ethics, this may be a later patriarchal reading into the Wonhwa. Women played a much more prominent social role in pre-Joseon dynasty Korea, especially in Silla, which had three reigning queens in its history.

Both sources record that during the reign of King Jinheung, groups of beautiful girls were chosen and taught filial and fraternal piety, loyalty, and sincerity (no firm date is given for this, and some scholars express doubt this even occurred during Jinheung‘s reign) wool fluff remover. However, the leaders of the two bands of Wonhwa, Nammo 南毛 and Junjeong 俊貞, grew jealous of one another. When Junjeong murdered her rival the Wonhwa were disbanded.

It should be noted that this origin story is most likely based on myth and legend, as the term wonhwa is composed of won 源; literally source, and undoubtedly refers to the founders of the sect, while hwa 花; literally flower, is a euphemism for someone who has spent a great deal of time or money in the pursuit of something, i.e. a devotee. In the case of the wonhwa, devotion to philosophy and the arts. Furthermore, while the names nammo and junjeong could have been appellations adopted by these two ladies for use in court, one cannot overlook the obvious descriptions they portray. Nammo hints at one who is careless yet lucky, or perhaps someone who is innately insightful and therefore lackadaisical about further erudition. Junjeung clearly indicates a person who is talented and virtuous, despite the fact that she was the one who succumbed to homicidal tendencies. It would be logical to assume that if someone had to work hard, maybe even struggle with attaining certain goals, that envy might consume them if their counterpart, especially if viewed more as a rival, seemed to reach the same objectives with substantially less effort.

At some point thereafter, according to the Samguk Yusa, the Silla king, “concerned about the strengthening of the country … again issued a decree and chose boys from good families who were of good morals and renamed them hwarang.” The actual word used in this chronicle is hwanang (花娘), meaning “flower girls”. This suggests that the Hwarang were not originally military in character, as the Wonhwa were not soldiers. The youths who were chosen by the Silla Kingdom became the knights and warriors for the Silla Dynasty within the age of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. A close relationship did exist between the Hwarang and Buddhism because Buddhism was accepted as a state religion by the royalty and aristocrats within the Silla Kingdom. The Buddhist monks were often mentors for the Hwarang in both physical and spiritual ways. The Hwarang would seek the teachings of these Buddhist monks because they knew that the martial arts practiced by these Buddhist monks were a source through which they could strengthen themselves for greater success in the future and for the benefit of the Silla Kingdom. The monks would train themselves in physical fitness exercises through self-defense techniques, countering the weakening effects of long-term meditation and enabling them to protect themselves from bandits and robbers who tried to steal the donations and charities that were collected by the monks on their pilgrimages. Both the Buddhist monks and the Hwarang would go on journeys to famous mountains to heighten their training and would seek encounters with supernatural beings for protection and the success of the Silla Kingdom. Won Gwang Beop Sa (圓光法士) was a Buddhist monk who was asked by the Hwarang to teach them ways to develop ambition, bravery, and honor, in order to protect the Silla Kingdom from the other kingdoms inhabiting the peninsula. Won Gwang trained these youths in three areas 1.) Self-defense capabilities 2.) Self-confidence 3.) Self-control

Won Gwang taught the youths of the Hwarang to become warriors who could defend their beliefs with martial arts, to be confident in their actions, and to control themselves and their surroundings. Won Gwang gave to these Hwarang, martial arts techniques that combined the secret Buddhist monk’s physical exercises, along with Taek Kyeon, the art of foot fighting that existed at that time (also known as: gwonbeop). Won Gwang also proposed 5 principles or guidelines that were later called the Five Precepts for Secular Life {Se Sok O Gye; 세속오계; 世俗五戒} which became a list of ethics that the Hwarang could embrace (this is why he is commonly known as Beop Sa or “lawgiver”):
1.) Show allegiance to one’s sovereign goalie gloves for sale. {sa·gun·i·chung; 사군이충; 事君以忠}
2.) Treat one’s parents with respect and devotion. {sa·chin·i·hyo; 사친이효; 事親以孝}
3.) Exhibit trust and sincerity amongst friends. {gyo·u·i·sin; 교우이신; 交友以信}
4.) Never retreat in battle. {im·jeon·mu·toe; 임전무퇴; 臨戰無退}
5.) Exercise discretion when taking a life. {sal·saeng·yu·taek; 살생유택; 殺生有擇}

These commandments and teachings of Won Gwang were followed by the Hwarang to protect the Silla Kingdom from rivaling kingdoms and helped unify the nation of Ancient Korea until the fall of the Silla Kingdom.

In 520, King Beopheung had instituted Sino-Korean style reforms and formalized the golpum (bone rank) system. In 527, Silla formally adopted Buddhism as a state religion. The establishment of Hwarang took place in the context of tightening central state control, a complement to the golpum system and a symbol of harmony and compromise between the king and the aristocracy.

With the consolidation and expansion of Silla and intensification of military rivalries among the Three Kingdoms in the 6th century, the Silla court took a more active interest in the Hwarang. Hwarang groups were usually led by a youth of aristocratic standing, and the state appointed a high-ranking official to oversee the organization cheap bpa free water bottles.

The Hwarang in the later 6th and 7th centuries trained in horsemanship, swordsmanship, archery, javelin and stone throwing, polo, and ladder-climbing. By the seventh century the organization had grown greatly in prestige and numbered several hundred bands.

The Samguk Sagi, compiled by the general and official Kim Busik, emphasizes the military exploits of certain Hwarang, while the Samguk Yusa emphasizes the group’s Buddhist activities. The biographies section of the Samguk Sagi describes young Hwarang who distinguished themselves in the struggles against the Gaya confederacy and later Baekje and Goguryeo. According to the Hwarang Segi, as cited in the Samguk Sagi and Haedong Goseungjeon, “…able ministers and loyal subjects are chosen from them, and good generals and brave soldiers are born therefrom.”

The Hwarang were greatly influenced by Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist ideals. A Chinese official recorded, “They [Silla] choose fair sons from noble families and deck them out with cosmetics and fine clothes and call them Hwarang. The people all revere and serve them.”

While the Hwarang are viewed by some historians as fighting bands which degenerated into effeminate dilettantes, others consider that they were a religious cult which later evolved into “dance boys”, the title then being inherited by a lower class of itinerant mujari, or “Korean gypsies”, known for male prostitution or homosexuality and who replaced a role previously taken by women.

Two youths, Gwisan (귀산,貴山) and Chwihang (취항, 取項), approached the Silla monk Won Gwang (원광, 圓光) seeking spiritual guidance and teaching, saying, “We are ignorant and without knowledge. Please give us a maxim which will serve to instruct us for the rest of our lives.”

Won Gwang, who had gained fame for his period of study in Sui China, replied by composing the Five Commandments for Secular Life (Se Sok O Gye; 세속 오계; 世俗五戒). These have since been attributed as a guiding ethos for the Hwarang:

The Samguk Yusa also records that Hwarang members learned the Five Cardinal Confucian Virtues, the Six Arts, the Three Scholarly Occupations, and the Six Ways of Government Service (五常六藝 三師六正) thermos bottle price.

Following the fall of Silla, the term hwarang survived and changed in meaning again. In Choe Sejin (최세진)’s 1527 book Hunmong jahoe (훈몽자회), the term hwarang is even referred to as a male prostitute. Today, Hwarang is often used in the names of various schools, organizations and companies.

Gheorghe Ciolac

Gheorghe Ciolac, né le 10 août 1908 à Comloșu Mare à l’époque en Autriche-Hongrie (aujourd’hui en Roumanie) et mort le 13 avril 1965 à Timișoara en Roumanie 18k Rose Bracelet, était un footballeur roumain.

Après avoir joué chez les jeunes du Politehnica Timișoara entre 1922 et 1924, Gheorghe Ciolac commence en senior au Banatul, une autre équipe de Timișoara. Il y joue jusqu’en 1930, avant de revenir au Ripensia Timișoara cheap bpa free water bottles.

Gheorghe Ciolac est le capitaine de l’équipe qui, de 1932 à 1938 gagne 4 Liga 1 et 2 coupes de Roumanie.

Ciolac inscrit le but de la victoire lors de sa première finale de coupe roumaine, alors que le match est contesté par les adversaires du Ripensia, l’Universitatea Cluj, qui demande de jouer le match dans un stade neutre. Le match est rejoué deux mois plus tard à Bucarest, et Ripensia regagne 5-0.

Lors de la finale de la coupe de Roumanie de football de 1936, Ciolac inscrit 2 buts avec le Ripensia Timișoara contre l’Unirea Tricolor Bucarest, avec une victoire 5-1.

Ciolac prend sa retraite en 1941, après un dernier match contre le Venus FC Bucarest le 15 juin.

Gheorghe Ciolac fait ses débuts avec l’équipe de Roumanie de football en mai 1928, lors d’un match contre la Yougoslavie, perdu par les Roumains, 1-3. Lors de son second match en jaune, Ciolac inscrit un triplé lors de la victoire 3-0 contre la Bulgarie.

En septembre 1929, il devient capitaine de l’équipe, lors d’un match contre les Bulgares au Levski Stadium à Sofia.

Gheorghe Ciolac est sélectionné pour jouer la coupe du monde 1934, mais ne joue pas de matchs, et est sur le banc lors du match contre la Tchécoslovaquie. Il joue son dernier match en 1937, contre les Tchécoslovaques (1-1).

Championnat de Roumanie (4) : 1932-1933, 1934-1935, 1935-1936, 1937-1938

Coupe de Roumanie (2) : 1933-1934, 1935-1936