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Hethe

Hethe is a village and civil parish about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) north of Bicester in Oxfordshire.

The village’s toponym comes from the Old English hæð meaning “heath, uncultivated ground”.

Before and after the Norman Conquest of England Wulfward the White, a thegn of King Edward the Confessor’s Queen Edith, owned the manor of Hethe. However, by 1086 William the Conqueror had granted the manor to Geoffrey de Montbray, who was both Bishop of Coutances and also one of William’s senior military commanders. By the 12th century the manor belonged to the Earls of Gloucester, with whom it stayed until the 4th Earl of Gloucester died without a successor in 1314. In 1347 the manor passed to the 1st Earl of Stafford. It remained with the Staffords (who from 1402 were also Dukes of Buckingham) until 1521, when Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham was executed for treason and his properties were attainted to the Crown.

Somewhen after 1167 St Bartholomew’s Hospital in London was given a hide of land at Hethe. In 1537 the hospital was dissolved under the dissolution of the monasteries and the Crown seized all its lands, but in 1547 the hospital was refounded. The hospital retained its holding at Hethe at least as late as 1682.

Hethe House was built in the 18th century. It used to be a dower house for Shelswell.

The parish was farmed under an open field system until 1772, when an Act of Parliament enabled its enclosure.

The Church of England parish church of Saint Edmund and Saint George is known to have existed by 1154, when it was given to the Augustinian Priory at Kenilworth, later Kenilworth Abbey. Both the west wall of the nave and the south wall of the chancel survive from this time, each retaining a Norman lancet window and the latter a priest’s doorway from the same period. The east end of the chancel was rebuilt early in the 13th century when a Decorated Gothic east window was inserted. In the 15th century a Perpendicular Gothic clerestory was added to the nave. When the Abbey was dissolved in 1538 the advowson of Hethe passed to the Crown, which has retained it ever since.

In 1854 Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford complained that the St. Edmund and St. George was “in most miserable order” and “utterly too small for the population”. In 1859 the Gothic Revival architect G.E. Street restored the building, widened the chancel arch, and added the bell-turret and the north aisle. Street moved the Decorated Style east window from the chancel to the north aisle, and inserted a new east window in the chancel in its place. In 1924 the living was combined with that of Fringford. The parish is now part of the benefice of Stratton Audley with Godington, Fringford with Hethe and Stoke Lyne. The benefice is part of the Shelswell group of parishes.

The Old Rectory was in existence by 1679. In 1928 it was refitted after being burnt out fluff ball remover.

No Roman Catholics were reported in Hethe from the English Reformation in the 1540s until after the English Civil War phone holder running. However, in the first half of the 16th century William Fermor of Somerton bought the manor of Hardwick 1 mile (1.6 km) west of Hethe, in 1606 Sir Richard Fermor bought the manor of Tusmore, 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Hethe and in 1625 the Fermor family moved to Tusmore from Somerton. The Fermors were a recusant family who had their own Roman Catholic chapel, a family priest (usually a Jesuit), and employed Catholic staff whom they allowed to attend Mass at their family chapel. The Fermors supported Catholic communities who farmed their lands at Godington (3 miles (4.8 km) east of Hethe), Hardwick and Somerton.

At some time the Fermors acquired land at Hethe, and in 1676 ten Catholics working for the Fermors were living there. A Roman Catholic population numbering less than ten survived in Hethe survived throughout the 18th and early part of the 19th centuries, some but not all of them working for the Fermors. They attended Mass at the chapel in Tusmore until the Fermors closed it for refurbishment in 1768. Thereafter they attended Mass at a chapel in Hardwick created in the attic of the manor house, but the Fermors sold the manor in 1828 and the new owner closed the chapel in 1830.

In 1832 the priest from Hardwick had Holy Trinity church built at Hethe to serve the Roman Catholic population there and in surrounding villages. It is a Gothic Revival building but the name of its architect is not recorded.

By 1794 Hethe had a small Methodist congregation. It built its first chapel in 1854 and replaced this with a second chapel in 1876. The latter was still being used as a chapel in 1955 but is now a private house.

Hethe has a public house, which until the early part of the 19th century was called the Maltster’s Arms. It was then renamed the Whitmore Arms, after Thomas Whitmore who lived at Hethe House 1808-11. It has been a Grade II listed building since 1988. Since 2012 it has been called The Muddy Duck.

A National School was built in 1852 and enlarged in 1874. In 1924 it was reorganised as a junior school and in 1948 it was reorganised again as an infants’ school. In 1954 it was still open as a Church of England school, but it is now closed.

In 1831 land was bought to build a Roman Catholic school. Building was begun then, but not completed until 1870 when it opened as St. Philip’s School. By 1920 it was an infants’ school and in 1924 it was closed.

Media related to Hethe at Wikimedia Commons

Mutti (azienda)

Mutti – Industria Conserve Alimentari è un’azienda italiana specializzata nelle conserve alimentari, in particolare nel settore del pomodoro, fondata nel 1899 a Piazza di Basilicanova, frazione di Montechiarugolo, in provincia di Parma.

L’azienda viene fondata da Callisto e Marcellino Mutti (1862-1941) con il nome di Fratelli Mutti a Piazza di Basilicanova, come industria conserviera del pomodoro.

Nel 1911 viene depositato il marchio “due leoni” e l’azienda ottiene il primo riconoscimento con il Diploma di Medaglia d’Oro di Primo Grado all’Esposizione Internazionale Industria e Agricoltura di Roma; nel 1914, invece, Mutti ottiene il diploma di Gran Croce, con iscrizione al Gran Libro d’Oro dei Benemeriti del lavoro.

In tale periodo, lo storico stabilimento di Piazza era raccordato con la tranvia Parma-Traversetolo/Montecchio fluff ball remover.

Con l’evoluzione delle tecniche di conservazione, nel 1922 Mutti comincia a produrre il doppio concentrato e l’attività evolve ulteriormente nel 1927 con un programma di acquisizioni di altre aziende conserviere.

Nel 1951 nasce il tubetto per il concentrato di pomodoro. Il prodotto nel tubetto non si deteriora perché non viene a contatto con l’aria e permette di consumarne solo quanto serve. In più, per tutte le massaie, il tappo era utilizzabile anche come pratico ditale nei lavori di cucito. Era nato il: “tubetto dal ditale”.

Nel 1971, nasce la polpa di pomodoro in finissimi pezzi Mutti, le cui ricetta è ancora oggi segreta.

Nata come familiare, l’azienda diventa prima Società di fatto, poi Società in nome collettivo e infine Società per azioni nel 1979.

Nel 1994 Francesco Mutti diventa amministratore delegato.

Nel 1999 quello Mutti diventa il primo stabilimento ad avere tutta la propria produzione a lotta integrata certificata e No OGM.

Il 2000 è l’anno che vede nascere il premio “Pomodorino d’Oro”, con cui Mutti premia i suoi produttori: un riconoscimento agli agricoltori capaci di produrre pomodoro di qualità.

Nel 2004 viene prodotto per la prima volta l’aceto di pomodoro e nel 2007 i sughi pronti.

Durante l’anno 2010, l’azienda inizia la propria collaborazione con il WWF, al fine di ricercare e sancire una maggiore sostenibilità nella produzione, in particolare nel diminuire emissioni di CO2 e ridurre l’impronta idrica lungo la filiera.

Insieme con la facoltà di Agraria dell’Università di Piacenza e al Laboratorio Lims di Verbania, nel 2012 Mutti studia una metodologia per individuare la provenienza geografica delle materie prime partendo dall’analisi dei semilavorati gym fanny pack. Il progetto viene presentato presso il Senato della Repubblica Italiana sul tema “Alimentazione e percorso di trasparenza dalla Tavola alla Terra”.

Nel 2013 apre Mutti France per lo sviluppo del mercato francese. Nello stesso anno comincia la collaborazione con Fiordagosto, uno stabilimento con sede a Oliveto Citra (Salerno), per la produzione delle specialità tipiche del Sud, che verrà poi acquisito nel 2016.

Nel 2014 in collaborazione con Horta, spin off dell’Università Cattolica di Piacenza nasce pomodoro.net, per sostenere un percorso di affiancamento, di supporto e di cooperazione con gli agricoltori.

Nel 2015 vengono lanciate le Salse Pronte.

L’azienda in 11 anni è passata da 43.989 mil. € nel 2004 a circa 234 mil. € nel 2015 di fatturato.

Logo dal 1912

Logo dal 1914

Logo dal 1951

Logo dal 1979

Siège de Syracuse (877-878)

Prise de Syracuse. Illustration tirée de la chronique de Skylitzès de Madrid

Batailles

Le siège de Syracuse en 877-878 débouche sur la chute de la cité, qui est alors la capitale byzantine de la Sicile, au profit des Aghlabides. Le siège s’étale d’août 877 au 21 mai 878, date à laquelle la ville, abandonnée par le pouvoir central byzantin, est mise à sac par les Arabes. Cet événement constitue un moment important de la conquête musulmane de la Sicile.

Les Aghlabides ont déjà tenté de s’emparer de la ville sans succès en 828, juste après leur débarquement sur l’île en 827. En dépit de cet échec press art lemon and lime squeezer, ils parviennent à s’installer à l’ouest de la Sicile et à progresser peu à peu vers le centre de l’île. D’autres tentatives de s’emparer de Syracuse sont menées en 868, 869 et 873, sans succès.

En 875, l’émir Mohammed II, peu porté sur la guerre, décède. C’est son frère Ibrahim II, plus belliqueux, qui lui succède. Il est déterminé à s’emparer de Syracuse et il nomme un nouveau gouverneur sur l’île, en la personne de Dja’far ibn Mohammed. En outre, il envoie une flotte depuis l’Ifriqiya (le Maghreb) pour soutenir les troupes arabes en Sicile.

Dja’far commence sa campagne en 877 en razziant les territoires byzantins à l’est de l’île et en occupant les forts aux alentours de Syracuse. Le siège de la cité commence en août, par le blocus terrestre et maritime de la ville. Les événements lors du siège sont décrits de manière assez précise par le témoin oculaire Théodose le Moine, qui en fait le récit durant sa captivité.

La résistance de la ville est conduite par un patrice dont l’identité ne nous est pas parvenue. Quant aux Arabes, ils sont dirigés dans un premier temps par Dja’far mais celui-ci retourne ensuite à Palerme et confie le commandement à son fils, Abou Ishaq. Les assiégeants sont bien fournis en armes de sièges, comprenant des mangonneaux et ils lancent des assauts répétés, de jour comme de nuit. Théodose consacre la majeure partie de son récit aux souffrances des habitants fluff ball remover, « frappés par la faim et la maladie » ainsi qu’à « l’hyperinflation des prix pour des quantités dérisoires de nourriture ». Un boisseau de blé coûte 150 nomismata d’or, un boisseau de farine 200 et un bœuf 300 nomismata. Après plusieurs mois de siège, les habitants ont épuisé leurs réserves d’huile, de fruit, de fromage, de poisson et de légumes. Ils en viennent à se nourrir de gras, de la peau des animaux et certains auraient eu recours, selon Théodose, au cannibalisme, en mangeant les morts et les enfants.

En dépit de l’importance stratégique de Syracuse, les sources font apparaître que les efforts des Byzantins pour secourir la ville sont limités. Ibn al-Athîr rapporte que quelques navires byzantins apparaissent devant la ville mais ils sont vaincus sans difficulté. Dans le même temps, le gros de la flotte byzantine est mobilisé pour transporter les matériaux de construction nécessaires à la construction de la Nea Ekklesia, l’église construire par Basile Ier à Constantinople. Quand la flotte fait finalement voile vers la Sicile, sous la direction d’Adrianos, elle est tellement retardée par des vents contraires à Monemvasie qu’elle y apprend la chute de Syracuse. Sans opposition sur les mers, les Arabes peuvent détruire les fortifications protégeant les deux ports de la ville. L’une des tours est démolie, de même que les murs adjacents, ouvrant une brèche où les Arabes concentrent leurs attaques. Toutefois, le patrice de la ville rassemble les défenseurs et, durant vingt jours, parvient à combler à tenir la position contre des adversaires supérieurs en nombre.

La cité finit par tomber dans la matinée du 21 mai 878 après neuf mois de siège. Les défenseurs venaient de se retirer des murailles pour se reposer et déjeuner, ne laissant qu’une garde limitée pour tenir la brèche, sous la conduite de Jean Patrianos. Les Arabes en profitent pour lancer une attaque surprise, utilisant tous leurs engins de siège en même temps pour soutenir leur offensive jersey for football. Le patrice se précipite alors pour rejoindre les défenseurs mais les Arabes les ont tué et viennent de pénétrer dans la cité. Un détachement qui tente de bloquer la voie vers l’église du Sauveur est annihilé et les Arabes pénètrent dans l’église où la plus grande partie de la population s’est réfugiée et périt dans le massacre qui s’ensuit. Le patrice se retrouve isolé avec soixante-dix hommes au sein d’une tour, jusqu’à ce soit contraint de se rendre le lendemain. Quant à Théodose, il assiste à la liturgie dans la cathédrale quand la nouvelle de la chute de la cité lui arrive. Il est alors fait prisonnier avec l’archevêque. À la différence de qui intervient dans l’église du Sauveur, les Arabes ne les maltraitent pas mais forcent l’archevêque à révéler l’emplacement de la sacristie, où les objets précieux sont conservés.

La plus grande partie de la population est tuée lors du sac de la ville. Selon Théodose, parmi les seuls notables, plus de 4 000 sont tués. Le commandant arabe, Abu Ishaq, fait exécuter le patrice byzantin la semaine suivante et les soixante-dix hommes qui ont formé le dernier carré de la résistance byzantine sont emmenés à l’extérieur de la ville et battus à mort. Nicétas de Tarse all stainless steel water bottle, l’un des défenseurs, est pris à part, torturé puis exécuté pour avoir insulter le prophète Mahomet lors du siège. Seuls quelques Mardaïtes venant du Péloponnèse ainsi que quelques soldats de la garnison parviennent à s’enfuir et à atteindre la Grèce, où ils informent Adrianos de la chute de la ville. Cette dernière est pillée et pratiquement complètement détruite. Selon Ibn al-Athîr, les Arabes restent dans la ville durant deux mois avant de revenir vers leur base, laissant la cité en ruines. Ibn al-Athîr affirme aussi qu’une escadre byzantine apparaît devant la ville mais est repoussée après une bataille lors de laquelle quatre navires byzantins sont coulés.

Dja’far ne profite pas très longtemps de ce succès car la même année, il est tué par deux de ses esclaves, à l’instigation de son oncle et de son frère, qui s’emparent de la province. Cet événement marque le commencement d’une période de troubles internes parmi les Musulmans de Sicile. Toutefois, le conflit avec les Byzantins se poursuit dans les années 880, les Arabes tentant de soumettre les dernières forteresses byzantines dans le tiers nord-est de l’île, sans grands succès. Les raids permettent de constituer des butins qui servent à payer l’armée mais aucune position n’est conquise. Durant la même période, un sursaut byzantin intervient sur l’Italie continentale où des généraux comme Nicéphore Phocas l’Aîné remportent une série de victoires contre les Arabes.

Le manque de succès face aux Byzantins exacerbe les tensions parmi les Arabes. À Palerme, une rébellion éclate en 886 puis en 890. Ces tensions émanent de divisions diverses, notamment entre les Arabes et les Berbères, entre les Siciliens et les nouveaux arrivants d’Ifriqiya et entre les Palermitains et les habitants d’Agrigente. En 898, une véritable guerre civile entre les Arabes et les Berbères débute et ne se termine qu’avec la prise de Palerme en 900 par Abdallah, le fils d’Ibrahim II. En outre, Abdallah remporte plusieurs victoires contre les Byzantins, avant d’être rappelé en Afrique par son père. Par la suite, Ibrahim se rend lui-même en Sicile avec des volontaires et s’empare de Taormine, la dernière grande forteresse byzantine de l’île, en août 902. Même si quelques forts sont encore conservés par les Byzantins au nord-est de la Sicile et que la dernière position chrétienne est conquise seulement en 965 avec la prise de Rometta, la chute de Taormine marque la fin effective de la Sicile byzantine et la mainmise des Musulmans sur l’île.

Hirticlavula

Hirticlavula is a fungal genus in the family Clavariaceae. It contains a single described species, Hirticlavula elegans. Formally described in 2014, the fungus has been collected from Norway and Denmark. H. elegans produces white fruit bodies up to 1.1 millimetres (0.043 in) in height. Each fruit body contains a fertile head atop a hairy stem. The fruit bodies grow directly from dead bark or wood, where they feed as saprotrophs. Both morphological and ecological details are distinctive when compared to other clavarioid fungi.

Hirticlavula elegans was described based on collections dating back to 1995. It was provisionally reported in 2009 in the proceedings of a 2008 conference, before being formally described in 2009 by Jens H football cleat socks. Petersen and Thomas Læssøe in an article in Karstenia, coauthored with Marie L. Davey. The specific name elegans is from the Latin meaning “elegant”, and refers to how “pretty” the species’s fruit bodies are. In Danish, the species has the common name hårkølle. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that within the Clavariaceae, Hirticlavula is a sister to the clade comprising Clavaria, Camarophyllopsis and Hodophilus.

Hirticlavula elegans produces white fruit bodies from 800 to 1100 micrometres (μm) in height. The robust and fertile head measures from 230 to 260 by 90 to 200 μm, while the hairy stem measures between 600 and 800 by 40 to 60 μm. The fruit bodies mostly retain their shape when dried, but do develop a cream tinge. The fruit bodies do not emerge from a sclerotium, but instead grow directly from the substrate.

The basidia are cyanophilous, meaning that the cell walls will readily absorb methyl blue stain. They measure 14 to 22 by 3.5 to 5 μm, and each sport four “curved and remarkably thin” sterigmata. The sterigmata are 4–5 μm in length. The smooth, broadly ellipsoid spores measure 4.5 to 6.5 by 3–4.2 μm. They are hyaline, and either cyanophilous or containing cyanophilous particles. They contain no prominent crystals, and are topped by a 0.8 μm-long apiculus (the section that connects to the sterigmatum). The hyphae lack clamp connections, and the hyphal structure is monomitic, meaning that only generative hyphae are present. In the stem, the 1–2 μm-wide hyphae run parallel to one another, but are less regular towards the base.

The hairs on the stem are straight and point away from the substrate, emerging from the stems at oblique angles. They are 150 to 250 μm in length; at the base, they are 1.5 to 2.5 μm in width, while at the rounded to club-shaped tips, they are 3 to 4.5 μm in width. The hairs do not branch, have moderately thick walls and are somewhat septate. Individual cells in the hairs measure 10 to 30 μm in length.

It is unknown whether the fruit bodies are edible, but they are unlikely to be of interest to mushroom hunters due to the small size.

Hirticlavula elegans fruit bodies are highly distinctive. The characteristic hairy stems are very different from those of any other species in the Clavariaceae. Hairy stems are seen among more distant relatives, including members of Typhula, Pistillina and Pterula. However, the hairs of H. elegans are specialised structures containing numerous cells, while the more irregular hairs on the stems of the other species are merely branched hyphae. In addition, the hairs on the H. elegans stems thicken at the furthest point from the stem, while any hairs on the stems of other known species of clavarioid fungi thin at the end.

Hirticlavula elegans is known from Denmark and Norway. The fruit bodies grow directly from the wood or, more usually, the bark of hardwoods. Identified substrates include oaks, willows, hazels and possibly birches. The ecology of the species is distinctive; while other members of the Clavariaceae are biotrophic (feeding upon living plant matter), H.&nbsp fluff ball remover;elegans grows on dead plant matter as a saprotroph. The species fruits from May to October, longer than the fruiting of any other very small clavarioid fungi known to the describing authors.