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Special member state territories and the European Union

Several European Union member states have territories which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union. These statuses may have a wide range of derogation from EU policies. Most of the territories which are outside the EU nonetheless have a special relationship with the EU.

The outermost regions (OMR) are territories forming part of a member state water glass bottles wholesale, situated a significant distance from mainland Europe, which are part of the EU. According to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, both primary and secondary European Union law applies automatically to these territories, with possible derogations to take account of their “structural social and economic situation … which is compounded by their remoteness, insularity, small size, difficult topography and climate, economic dependence on a few products, the permanence and combination of which severely restrain their development”. All form part of the EU’s customs area, however some fall outside of Schengen Area (all but Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores) and European Union Value Added Tax Area (EU VAT Area).

Seven outermost regions were recognised at the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. The Treaty of Lisbon included two additional territories (Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin) in 2007, both of which seceded from one of the original outermost regions (Guadeloupe). Saint Barthélemy changed its status from OMR to OCT with effect from 1 January 2012. Mayotte, which was formerly an OCT, joined the EU as a OMR with effect from 1 January 2014. As of April 2014, a total of nine territories (six French, two Portuguese, and one Spanish) were registered to have OMR status.

Azores and Madeira are two groups of Portuguese islands in the Atlantic. Azores and Madeira are integral parts of the Portuguese Republic, but both have the special status as Autonomous Regions, with a degree of self-governance. While derogations from the application of EU law could apply, none do. Their VAT is lower than the rest of Portugal, but they are not outside the EU VAT Area.

The Canary Islands are a Spanish archipelago off the African coast which form one of the 17 Autonomous Communities of Spain–the country’s principal first-level administrative division. They are outside the EU VAT Area. The Canary Islands are the most populated and economically strongest territory of all the outermost regions in the European Union. The outermost regions office for support and information is located in these islands, in the city of Las Palmas on the island of Gran Canaria.

French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion are five French overseas departments (and also overseas regions) which under French law are, for the most part, treated as integral parts of the Republic. The euro is legal tender; however, they are outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.

Mayotte is the newest of the five overseas departments having changed from an overseas collectivity, with OCT status, on 31 March 2011. It became an outermost region and thus part of the EU on 1 January 2014.

Saint Martin is the only overseas collectivity of France with the status of being an outermost region of the EU. As with the French overseas departments, the euro is legal tender in Saint Martin, and it is outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.

On 22 February 2007, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy were broken away from the French overseas department of Guadeloupe to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions, European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community. The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty which listed them as an outermost region. However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012.

The overseas countries and territories (OCT) are dependent territories that have a special relationship with one of the member states of the EU, and have been explicitly invited by the EU treaty to join the EU-OCT Association (OCTA). They were listed in Annex II acc. to Article 198 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which aside from inviting them to join OCTA, also provided them the opportunity to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers and freedom of establishment. Yet, the freedom of establishment is limited by Article 203 TFEU and the respective Council Decision on OCTs (). Its Article 51(1)(a) prescribes only that “the Union shall accord to natural and legal persons of the OCTs a treatment no less favourable than the most favourable treatment applicable to like natural and legal persons of any third country with whom the Union concludes or has concluded an economic integration agreement.” Again this can be, according to Article 51(2)(b) limited. The obligations provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to treatment granted under measures providing for recognition of qualifications, licences or prudential measures in accordance with Article VII of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) or the GATS Annex on Financial Services.

The OCTs are not subject to the EU’s common external customs tariffs but may claim customs on goods imported from the EU on a non-discriminatory basis. They are not part of the EU and the EU acquis does not apply to them, though those joining OCTA are required to respect the detailed rules and procedures outlined by this association agreement (Council Decision 2013/755/EU). OCTA members are entitled to ask for EU financial support.

When the Rome Treaty was signed in March 1957, a total of 15 OCTs existed: French West Africa, French Equatorial Africa, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Comoros Archipelago, French Madagascar, French Somaliland, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, French Togoland, French Cameroons, Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of Somalia, Netherlands New Guinea. The list was since then revised multiple times, and comprised—as noted by the Lisbon Treaty—25 OCTs in 2007. One of the French territories subsequently switched status from OMR to OCT (Saint Barthélemy), while another French territory switched from OCT to OMR (Mayotte). As of July 2014, there are still 25 OCTs (twelve with the United Kingdom, six with France, six with the Netherlands and one with Denmark) of which 22 have joined OCTA. The three OCTs which are not part of OCTA (British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory and South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands) do not have a permanent population.

There are twelve overseas territories of the United Kingdom (all but Gibraltar, which, unlike the other territories, is part of the European Union (see below), and the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia on Cyprus), namely:

Bermuda did not – despite having OCT status as defined by the Rome Treaty – join the EU-OCT Association (OCTA) together with the other overseas territories in November 2001, but instead only joined OCTA on 2 July 2014. As of July 2014, it is only the three remote areas without any permanent population (British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands), that are not members of OCTA. All citizens of the British overseas territories, except those residing at Britain’s sovereign bases in Cyprus, were granted full British citizenship by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, and are consequently citizens of the European Union.

A total of six French overseas territories currently have OCT status within EU.

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (which also include the French Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, and the French claim of Adélie Land in Antarctica) is a French Overseas Territory but has no permanent population. It has sui generis status within France.

Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Barthélemy, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna are overseas collectivities (formerly referred to as overseas territories) of France, while New Caledonia is a “sui generis collectivity”. Saint Barthélemy and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon use the euro, while New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna use the CFP Franc, a currency which is tied to the euro and guaranteed by France. Natives of the collectivities are European citizens owing to their French citizenship and elections to the European Parliament are held in the collectivities.

On 22 February 2007, Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin were separated from the French overseas department of Guadeloupe to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence, their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions, European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community. The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty which listed them as outermost regions. However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012. The change was made to facilitate trade with countries outside the EU, notably the United States, and was made possible by a provision of the Lisbon Treaty which allows the European Council to change the EU status of a Danish, Dutch, or French territory on the initiative of the member state concerned.

Six territories of the Netherlands — all of which are Caribbean islands — have OCT status. As such, they benefit from being able to have their own export and import policy to and from the EU, while still having access to receive various EU funds (i.e. from the European Development Fund). The inhabitants of the islands are EU citizens owing to their Dutch citizenship, with the right to vote in elections to the European Parliament. Initially they did not have voting rights for such elections, but the European Court of Justice granted them such rights, when they ruled their exclusion from the franchise was contrary to EU law, as all other Dutch citizens resident outside the EU did have the right to vote. None of the islands use the euro as their currency. The US dollar is used on Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba, while Curaçao and St. Maarten utilize their own shared currency the Antillean guilder, and finally the currency of Aruba is the Aruban florin.

Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are classified as “countries” under Dutch law and have considerable internal autonomy. In June 2008, the Dutch government published a report on the effect on the islands were they to join the EU as outermost regions. It concluded that it would be for the islands themselves to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of becoming part of the EU as outermost regions and that nothing would be done absent the islands specifically requesting it.

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba (collectively called Caribbean Netherlands) are “special municipalities” of the Netherlands proper. Their current OCT status, and the prospect of advancing their status to become part of the EU as new OMRs (outermost regions), has been scheduled to be reviewed by the Dutch parliament in 2015, as part of the planned review of the Dutch law (WOLBES and FINBES) concerning the quality of their recently implemented new public administration bodies. In October 2015, the review concluded the present legal structures for governance and integration with European Netherlands was not working well within the framework of WolBES, but no recommendations were made in regards of whether a switch from OCT to OMR status would help improve this situation.

The islands inherited their OCT status from the Netherlands Antilles which was dissolved in 2010. The Netherlands Antilles were initially specifically excluded from all association with the EEC by reason of a protocol attached to the Treaty of Rome, allowing the Netherlands to ratify on behalf of the Netherlands in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only, which it subsequently did meet tenderizer. Following the entry into force of the Convention on the association of the Netherlands Antilles with the European Economic Community on 1 October 1964, however, the Netherlands Antilles became OCTs.

Greenland joined the then European Community in 1973 as a county along with Denmark, but voted to leave the EC in 1982 and left in 1985, to become an OCT. Citizens of Greenland are, nonetheless, EU citizens owing to their Danish citizenship. The EU–Greenland relationship is a comprehensive partnership, which is complementary to the OCT association arrangements under “Council Decision 2013/755/EU”; based specifically on “Council Decision 2014/137 of 14 March 2014” (outlining the relations) and the Fisheries Partnership Agreement of 30 July 2006.

While the outermost regions and the overseas countries and territories fall into structured categories to which common mechanisms apply, this is not true of all the special territories. Some territories have ad hoc arrangements in their relationship with the EU. Some of these could be called “protocol territories”[citation needed] as their status is governed by protocols attached to their respective countries’ accession treaties. The rest owe their status to European Union legislative provisions which exclude the territories from the application of the legislation concerned. Many were opted out from either the VAT area or the customs union or both.

Åland, a group of islands belonging to Finland, but with partial autonomy, located between Sweden and Finland, with a Swedish-speaking population, joined the EU along with Finland in 1995. The islands had a separate referendum on accession and like the Finnish mainland voted in favour.

EU law, including the fundamental four freedoms, applies to Åland. However, there are some derogations due to the islands’ special status. Åland is outside the VAT area and is exempt from common rules in relation to turnover taxes, excise duties and indirect taxation. In addition, to protect the local economy, the treaty of accession allows for a concept of hembygdsrätt/kotiseutuoikeus (regional citizenship) football player uniform. Consequently, there are restrictions on the holding of property and real estate, the right of establishment for business purposes and limitations on who can provide services in Åland, for people not holding this status. The status may be obtained by any Finnish citizen legally resident in Åland for 5 years who can demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the Swedish language.

The German exclave town of Büsingen am Hochrhein, fully surrounded by Switzerland, is in customs union with the latter non-EU country. The euro is legal tender, although the Swiss franc is preferred. Büsingen is excluded from the EU customs union and VAT area. Swiss VAT and sales taxes are paid.

The Italian exclave village of Campione d’Italia is enclaved by Switzerland’s Ticino canton as well as Lake Lugano (or Ceresio), and is a comune in the Province of Como, whilst Livigno, a small and remote mountain resort town, is a comune in the Province of Sondrio. Both comuni are part of the Lombardy region. Although part of the EU, they are excluded from the customs union and VAT area, with Livigno’s tax status dating back to Napoleonic times. Moreover, the only legal tender in Campione d’Italia is the Swiss franc, although in practice shops and restaurants accept payments also in euro – and their bills present dual price display in both Euros and Francs.

Ceuta and Melilla are two Spanish cities on the North African coast. They are part of the EU but they are excluded from the common agricultural and fisheries policies. They are also outside the customs union and VAT area, but no customs are levied on goods exported from the Union into either Ceuta and Melilla, and certain goods originating in Ceuta and Melilla are exempt from customs charges.

While nominally part of the Schengen Area, Spain performs identity checks on all sea and air passengers leaving the enclaves for elsewhere in the Schengen Area.

The Bailiwick of Jersey and Bailiwick of Guernsey—which form the Channel Islands—are Crown dependencies, under the sovereignty of the British monarch and thus part of the remaining British Empire. The islands take part in the EU freedom of movement of goods but not labour, services or capital. They are outside the VAT area, but inside the customs union.

Channel Islanders are British citizens and hence European citizens. As a result, they can travel freely within the EU, and all European citizens can travel to the islands without restrictions. However, the islands do not participate in the freedom of movement of labour, and as a result their citizens are not entitled to work or reside within the EU unless they are directly connected (through birth, or descent from a parent or grandparent) with the United Kingdom. After five years continuous residence in the United Kingdom, islanders are entitled to participate in the freedom of movement of labour or services throughout the EU.

The Isle of Man is a Crown dependency, under the sovereignty of the British monarch. The island takes part in the EU freedom of movement of goods but not labour, services or capital. The Isle of Man is inside the VAT area and the customs union.

Manx people are British citizens and hence European citizens. As a result, they can travel freely within the EU, and all European citizens can travel to the Isle of Man without restrictions. However, the island does not participate in the freedom of movement of labour, and as a result its citizens are not entitled to work or reside within the EU unless they are directly connected (through birth, or descent from a parent or grandparent) with the United Kingdom. After five years continuous residence in the United Kingdom, Manx people are entitled to participate in the freedom of movement of labour or services throughout the EU.

When the Republic of Cyprus became part of the European Union on 1 May 2004, the northern third of the island was outside of the effective control of its government due to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, a United Nations buffer zone of varying width separated the two parts, and a further 3% of the island was taken up by UK sovereign bases (under British sovereignty since the Treaty of Establishment in 1960). Two protocols to the Treaty of Accession 2003 – numbers 3 and 10, known as the “Sovereign Base Areas Protocol” and the “Cyprus Protocol” respectively – reflect this complex situation.

EU law only applies fully to the part of the island that is effectively controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. EU law is suspended in the northern third of the island (the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, whose independence is recognised only by Turkey) by article 1(1) of the Cyprus Protocol. If the island is reunified, the Council of the European Union will repeal the suspension by a decision. Four months after such a decision has been adopted, new elections to the European Parliament will be held on the island to elect Cypriot representatives from the whole of the island.

Cypriot nationality law applies to the entire island and is accordingly available to the inhabitants of Northern Cyprus and the British sovereign base areas on the same basis as to those born in the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus. Citizens of the Republic of Cyprus living in Northern Cyprus are EU citizens and are entitled to vote in elections to the European Parliament; however, elections to that Parliament are not organised in Northern Cyprus.[citation needed]

The United Kingdom has two sovereign base areas on Cyprus, namely Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Unlike other British overseas territories, they are not listed as Overseas Countries and Territories under the Treaty of Rome and their inhabitants (who are entitled to British Overseas Territories Citizenship) have never been entitled to British citizenship.

Prior to Cypriot accession to the EU in 2004, EU law did not apply to the sovereign base areas. This position was changed by the Cypriot accession treaty and EU law, while still not applying in principle, applies to the extent necessary to implement a protocol attached to that treaty. This protocol applies EU law relating to the Common Agricultural Policy, customs, indirect taxation, social policy and justice and home affairs to the sovereign base areas. The sovereign base areas’ authorities have also made provision for the unilateral application of directly applicable EU law. The UK also agreed in the Protocol to keep enough control of the external (i.e. off-island and northern Cyprus) borders of the base areas to ensure that the border between the sovereign base areas and the Republic of Cyprus can remain fully open and will not have to be policed as an external EU border. Consequently, the sovereign base areas will become a de facto part of the Schengen Area if and when Cyprus implements it. The base areas are already de facto members of the eurozone due to their previous use of the Cypriot pound before it was replaced by the euro in 2008.

As pointed out above, inhabitants of the sovereign base areas have never been entitled to British citizenship or to the European Union citizenship that would go with it, however Cypriot nationality law extends to Cypriots in the Sovereign Base Areas, meaning Cypriot residents, as citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, are entitled to EU citizenship. Just under half of the population of the sovereign base areas are Cypriots, the rest are British military personnel, support staff and their dependants. In a declaration attached to the Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus of 1960 the British government undertook not to allow new settlement of people in the sovereign base areas other than for temporary purposes.

The United Nations buffer zone between north and south Cyprus ranges in width from a few metres in central Nicosia to several kilometres in the countryside. While it is nominally under the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus, it is effectively administered by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). The population of the zone is 8,686 (as of October 2007), and one of the mandates of UNFICYP is “to encourage the fullest possible resumption of normal civilian activity in the buffer zone”. Article 2.1 of the Cyprus Protocol allows the European Council to determine to what extent the provisions of EU law apply in the buffer zone.

The Faroe Islands are not part of the EU, and they have not been part of the EU since Denmark joined the community in 1973. Danish citizens residing on the islands are not considered citizens of a member state within the meaning of the treaties or, consequently, citizens of the European Union. However, Faroese people may become EU citizens by changing their residence to the Danish mainland.

The Faroe Islands are not part of the Schengen Area, and Schengen visas are not valid. However, the islands are part of the Nordic Passport Union and the Schengen Agreement provides that travellers passing between the islands and the Schengen Area are not to be treated as passing the external frontier of the Area. This means that there is an identity check at air or boat travel to the islands where Nordic citizens on intra-Nordic travel need no passport, only showing the ticket plus identity card.

Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula and overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar, sharing a border with Spain to the north. It is part of the EU, having joined the European Economic Community under the United Kingdom in 1973. Article 355(3) (ex Article 299(4)) applies the treaty to “the European territories for whose external relations a Member State is responsible”, a provision which in practice only applies to Gibraltar. Although it is part of the EU, Gibraltar is outside the customs union and VAT area and is exempted from the Common Agricultural Policy; it does not form part of the Schengen Area. As a separate jurisdiction to the UK, Gibraltar’s government and parliament are responsible for the transposition of EU law into local law. In 2016 Gibraltar voted “remain” in the UK EU membership referendum; however Gibraltar’s membership is not distinct from the UK’s and Gibraltar is bound by the overall result of “leave”

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Owing to a declaration lodged by the United Kingdom with the EEC in 1982, Gibraltarians were to be counted as British nationals for the purposes of Community law. This was notwithstanding that they were not all, at the time, British citizens but many were British Overseas Territories citizens. As such Gibraltarians have enjoyed European Union citizenship from its creation by the Maastricht Treaty. Since 21 May 2002, all Gibraltarians have been granted the right to register a full British citizenship, while those who previously held a British Overseas Territory citizenship automatically were converted now to have a full British citizenship. Any child born in Gibraltar after 21 May 2002 will automatically become a British citizen, if just one of its parents is a British citizen or a Gibraltarian resident.

Despite their status as EU citizens resident in the EU, elections to the European Parliament were not held in Gibraltar until 2004. The inclusion resulted from the European Court of Human Rights’ 1999 ruling in Matthews v. United Kingdom which deemed that Gibraltar’s exclusion violated Article 3 of Protocol 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights. In the 2004 European Parliament election the territory formed part of the South West England constituency of the United Kingdom. The inclusion was unsuccessfully challenged by Spain before the European Court of Justice.

Like the UK, Gibraltar does not form part of the Schengen Area and, as a result, the border between Spain and Gibraltar is an external Schengen border through which Spain is legally obliged to perform full entrance and exit controls. However Gibraltar does participate in certain police and judicial cooperation aspects of the Schengen acquis in line with the UK’s request to participate in the same measures.

With respect to the application of EU law to Gibraltar, the governments of Spain and the United Kingdom made the following Declaration which is appended (as Declaration 55) to the Treaty on European Union: “The Treaties apply to Gibraltar as a European territory for whose external relations a Member State is responsible. This shall not imply changes in the respective positions of the Member States concerned.”

Helgoland is an island of Germany situated in the North Sea 70 km (43 mi) off the German north-western coast. It is part of the EU, but is excluded from the customs union and the VAT area.

Mount Athos is an autonomous monastic region of Greece. Greece’s EU accession treaty provides that Mount Athos maintains its centuries-old special legal status, guaranteed by article 105 of the Greek Constitution. It is part of the customs union but outside the VAT area. Notwithstanding that a special permit is required to enter the peninsula and that there is a prohibition on the admittance of women, it is part of the Schengen Area. The monastery has certain rights to house monks from countries outside the EU. A declaration attached to Greece’s accession treaty to the Schengen Agreement states that Mount Athos’s “special status” should be taken into account in the application of the Schengen rules.

The Saimaa Canal and Värska–Ulitina road are two of several distinct travel arrangements that exist or existed because of changes in borders over the course of the 20th century, where transport routes and installations ended up on the wrong side of the border. Some have become superfluous thanks to the Schengen Agreement.

Finland leases the 19.6 km-long Russian part of the Saimaa Canal from Russia and is granted extraterritoriality rights. The area is not part of the EU, it is a special part of Russia. Under the treaty signed by Finnish and Russian governments, Russian law is in force with a few exceptions concerning maritime rules and the employment of canal staff which fall under Finnish jurisdiction. There are also special rules concerning vessels travelling to Finland via the canal. Russian visas are not required for just passing through the canal, but a passport is needed and it is checked at the border. Euros are accepted for the canal fees. Prior to the 50-year lease renewal coming into effect in February 2012, the Maly Vysotsky Island had also been leased and managed by Finland. Since then it has been fully managed by Russian authorities, and is no longer part of the concession territory.

The road from Värska to Ulitina in Estonia, traditionally the only road to the Ulitina area, goes through Russian territory for one kilometre (0.6 mi) of its length, an area called Saatse Boot. This road has no border control, but there is no connection to any other road in Russia. It is not permissible to stop or walk along the road. This area is a part of Russia but is also a de facto part of the Schengen area.

Many currently independent states or parts of such were previously territories of the following EU members since the latter joined the EU or, previously the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC):

Most of these territories seceded before the implementation of the Maastricht treaty in 1993 and the following years, meaning that cooperation like the EU citizenship, the VAT union or the Eurozone did not exist, so it made less difference to be a special territory then.

These were:

Additionally in Europe there were special territories in the past that had different status than their “mainland”, because of various reasons, but now are part of a member state. Some of these territories were as follows:

The following areas are still special member state territories, but have changed their status. See their entries in the article for details.

Some European countries are strongly connected to the European Union, through the European Economic Area or similar agreements. These countries are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, the member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). They are inside the single market (with exceptions) and the Schengen area, but outside the Eurozone, customs territory, and VAT area. Norway and Switzerland have special areas.

This table summarises the various components of EU laws applied in the EU member states and their sovereign territories. Member states that do not have special-status territories are not included (as there the EU law applies fully with the exception of the opt-outs in the European Union and states under a safeguard clause or transitional period). Some territories of EFTA member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied as is the case with some European microstates.

Summary for member states that do not have special-status territories, but do not participate in certain EU provisions as they are either not yet eligible or have an opt-out.

A list of the remaining member states which do not have special-status territories, and participate in all EU provisions:


The High Contracting Parties,

Anxious, at the time of signature of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, to define the scope of the provisions of Article 227 of this Treaty in respect of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,

Have agreed upon the following provisions, which shall be annexed to this Treaty:

The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, by reason of the constitutional structure of the Kingdom resulting from the Statute of 29 December 1954, shall, by way of derogation from Article 227, be entitled to ratify the Treaty on behalf of the Kingdom in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only.

Done at Rome this twenty-fifth day of March in the year one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven.

Angles complémentaires

Deux angles sont dits angles complémentaires lorsque leur somme fait 90 degrés.

Deux angles adjacents complémentaires forment un angle droit de 90°.

En géométrie euclidienne, les deux angles aigus d’un triangle rectangle sont complémentaires, car le troisième angle est un angle droit et la somme des angles d’un triangle vaut 180 degrés football player uniform.

Si deux angles sont supplémentaires, leurs moitiés sont complémentaires.

Lorsque deux angles sont complémentaires, le cosinus de l’un est égal au sinus de l’autre buy socks online cheap.

L’adjectif «&nbsp knee high socks wholesale;complémentaire » provient du latin complementum, qui dérive de la quatrième forme de conjugaison du verbe latin complere, c’est-à-dire « qui a été rempli ». Un angle aigu est rempli par son complément pour former un angle droit (un angle facile à construire à partir d’un segment de droite).

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :


Bertha Palmer

Bertha Palmer (May 22, 1849 – May 5, 1918) was an American businesswoman, socialite, and philanthropist.

Born Bertha Matilde Honoré in Louisville, Kentucky, her father was businessman Henry Hamilton Honoré. Bertha, known within the family as “Cissie,” studied in her home town and achieved a reputation as a skilled musician meat mallet alternative, proficient linguist, brilliant writer, able politician, and fine administrator.

Bertha Honoré married the Chicago millionaire Potter Palmer in 1870. She was twenty-one and he was forty-four. Palmer was a Quaker merchant who had come to Chicago after failing twice in business. In Chicago he learned to please his customers, many of whom were women. He made customer service a priority and carried everything from dry goods to the latest French fashions for ladies. Palmer sold his vast store to a consortium and it would eventually become Marshall Field’s. Palmer then opened a luxury hotel, Palmer House and invested in real estate, eventually owning a vast portfolio of properties. Soon after their marriage, the Chicago Fire wiped out the Palmer House and most of their holdings, and Bertha Palmer had to rush off to wire the east so that Palmer could re-establish credit, borrow money and rebuild his holdings. Bertha Palmer was unusually poised for one so young, and together the Palmers re-established their fortune and despite her age, she quickly rose to the top of Chicago society. “She was beautiful, dashing, quick, and smart; and more than that, she was sure of herself,” wrote historian Ernest Poole.

In 1874, she gave birth to son Honoré, and in 1875, she gave birth to son Potter Palmer II. Both sons went on to have sons named Potter Palmer III, as well as other children. See Who’s Who in Chicago (1931) football player uniform.

She was an early member of the Chicago Woman’s Club, part of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs; this group of working women met to discuss social problems and develop solutions. They supported kindergartens until the city made them part of the school system, and campaigned for inexpensive milk for impoverished children and better care for children of imprisoned mothers.

In 1893, Chicago would be site of the World’s Columbian Exposition, a celebration of the discovery of the New World by Columbus. It would also mark the city’s recovery from the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Women would have a large presence in the fair and the plum position was the President of the Board of Lady Managers, which Bertha Palmer was selected to lead in 1891. While the positions were honorary, the women had a great deal of work to do. The board chose Sophia Hayden as architect for the women’s building and designer to supervise the interior decoration. However, when Hayden wouldn’t take Palmer’s advice to accept rich women’s donations of architectural odds and ends to decorate the exterior, fearing a horrible visual impact as a result, Palmer fired Hayden and hired the much more malleable Candace Wheeler to supervise the interior decoration. The Chicago art curator Sarah Tyson Hallowell (1846-1924) worked closely with Palmer on the art exhibits and the murals. Apparently, it was Palmer who chose the theme of “Primitive Woman” and “Modern Woman” for the two murals and Hallowell and Palmer’s first choice for both murals was Elizabeth Jane Gardner (1837-1922), an experienced academic painter and the paramour of William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905). However, the time to paint the two huge murals (12′ x 54′) was short and the artist did not feel that she had the energy to complete the project. She was the head of Board of Lady Managers at the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893. Hallowell then recommended the young academic painter Mary Fairchild MacMonnies and the Impressionist painter Mary Cassatt to do the two murals and after their initial rejection of the contracts, the women only had a number of months to complete the murals and have them shipped to Chicago. Led by Palmer, who approached Congress on the matter, the board also requested that the mint produce a new commemorative coin for the Exposition, and their efforts resulted in the Isabella quarter. Following the opening of the Exposition, Palmer sat for the fashionable Swedish painter Anders Zorn (1860-1920), who was commissioned by the Board of Lady Managers from the fair.

At the time of the fair, the Palmers had been enthusiastic art collectors for a number of years. They depended on the curator Sarah Hallowell, a Philadelphia Quaker who they had met in 1873, for advice and she introduced the Palmers to the painters in Paris and to the latest artistic trends in the French capital. Most Midwestern collectors were still collecting works by the Barbizon School in the 1870s and 1880s, but thanks to the Palmers, this would soon change. In the years leading up to the Columbian Exposition, they became clients of the Parisian dealer Paul Durand-Ruel and began to collect French Impressionist works. Because Hallowell was curating a loan exhibition of the latest French art for the exposition, the Palmers accelerated their collecting because the curator wanted the latest and greatest in French art for the fair. The Palmer’s collection of Impressionist paintings was soon unrivaled

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Fútbol Club Barcelona Home I.RAKITIC 4 Jerseys



, soon they had twenty-nine Monets and eleven Renoirs. These works now form the core of the Art Institute of Chicago’s Impressionist collection. Hallowell also tried to get the Palmers interested in Auguste Rodin’s work, which he had loaned her for the fair. The frankness of his nudes had caused a stir at the fair and after resisting for a number of months, works by Rodin entered the collection as well and these were among the first acquired by American collectors. Bertha Palmer enjoyed her role as a cultural leader and tastemaker. In 1905, Hallowell finally convinced Mrs. Palmer to sit for Rodin.

Bertha Palmer was famous for her free spending ways. Her husband indulged her and did not mind that she was in the limelight. Her jewelry was legendary. According to the author Aline B. Saarinen, “so fabulous were her jewels that a newspaper declared that when she appeared on the S.S. Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse with a tiara of diamonds as large as lima beans, a corsage panned with diamonds, a sunburst as big as a baseball, a stomacher of diamonds and all the pearls around her neck, Alois Burgskeller of the Metropolitan Opera, who was singing at the ship’s concert, was stopped right in the middle of a high note.” She traveled throughout Europe, dining with kings and queens and mixing with industrialists and statesmen.

Vast sums were spent on the Palmer Mansion in Chicago, starting with $100,000 and rising over $1 million. Potter Palmer dictated in his will that a sum of money should go to whoever next married Bertha. When asked why he would be so generous to his own replacement, he replied, “Because he’ll need it.”[citation needed]

She also maintained homes in London and Paris and, following her husband’s death in 1902, rumors abounded that she would marry a titled man. Among the suspected suitors were the earl of Munster, the duke of Atholl, the prince of Monaco, and the king of Serbia. However, these rumors all proved to be unfounded when she remained unmarried.

In September 1907, Bertha Palmer and her son Potter II took part in the maiden voyage of the new Cunard liner RMS Lusitania from Liverpool to New York.

Bertha Palmer became interested in the winter climate of Florida and in 1910 bought up over 80,000 acres of land in and around Sarasota, Florida — about one-third of the land in what was then the massive county named Manatee. In 1914, she bought 19,000 acres (77 km2) of land as an exclusive hunting preserve called “River Hills” in Temple Terrace, Florida. After her death, her sons inherited the land and eventually sold it to developers who created the Mediterranean Revival golf course community of Temple Terrace, Florida. She became a progressive rancher, land developer, and farm developer who introduced many innovations to encourage the Florida ranching, citrus, dairy, and farming industries. Palmer was one of the first famous people to winter in Florida waterproof bags camping, beginning a now-common practice. She encouraged wealthy friends and associates in her international social circles to spend winters along Sarasota Bay and her other Florida land interests and promoted the development of many land parcels; today much of that land is still known as Palmer Ranch. The major roads through her property were named by her as well as some connecting to the existing communities. Those names remain unchanged as Honoré, Lockwood Ridge, Tuttle, Webber, and Macintosh. She proved herself to be an astute businesswoman: within sixteen years after her husband’s death, she managed to double the value of the estate he had left her. After her death, a large parcel of her land was donated (donated according to Sarasota County, sold according to the state) by her sons to become Myakka River State Park.

Upon her death at her winter residence, The Oaks in Osprey, Florida, her body was returned to Chicago to lie in state at the Castle, the sumptuous mansion Potter Palmer had built on Chicago’s Gold Coast. Bertha Palmer is buried alongside her husband in Graceland Cemetery.

On March 24, 2013, the half-hour documentary Love Under Fire: The Story of Bertha and Potter Palmer aired on PBS affiliate WTTW11 Chicago. The film was written, directed and produced by Amelia Dellos and Corn Bred Films.

III Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery

World War I

III Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery was a brigade of the Royal Horse Artillery which existed in the early part of the 20th Century. It served with the 1st and 2nd Cavalry Divisions on the Western Front throughout World War I.

Post-war, the brigade served in the UK and India before being redesignated as 3rd Regiment, RHA in August 1938 in Egypt.

The regiment had an earlier incarnation as C Brigade, RHA, formed from the 1st Brigade of the Honourable East India Company’s Bengal Horse Artillery in 1862 before being broken up in 1882.

The Bengal Army of the Honourable East India Company formed its first battery of Horse Artillery, the Experimental Brigade, Bengal Horse Artillery on 4 December 1800 (still in existence as F Battery, RHA). By the time the Indian Rebellion of 1857 broke out, the Bengal Horse Artillery had grown to 13 batteries, organized as three brigades. four of these batteries were manned by sepoys (native Indian soldiers) and two mutinied: 4th Troop, 1st Brigade at Neemuch and 4th Troop, 3rd Brigade at Multan. All four batteries were promptly reformed as European units.

As a result of the Rebellion, the British Crown took direct control of India from the East India Company on 1 November 1858 under the provisions of the Government of India Act 1858. The Presidency armies transferred to the direct authority of the British Crown and its European units were transferred to the British Army. Henceforth artillery, the mutineers most effective arm, was to be the sole preserve of the British Army (with the exception of certain Mountain Artillery batteries). On 19 February 1862, the Bengal Horse Artillery transferred to the Royal Artillery as its 2nd and 5th Horse Brigades. On transfer, 2nd Horse Brigade football player uniform, Royal Artillery comprised:

D Battery was disbanded on 12 October 1862.

The 1st Brigade with 10 batteries was much larger than the other four (with four to seven batteries each). A reorganization of the Horse Artillery on 13 April 1864 saw 1st Brigade split as A and B Brigades, 2nd Brigade become C Horse Brigade, Royal Artillery, 3rd become D Brigade, 4th become E Brigade, and 5th become F Brigade. As battery designations were tied to the brigade the battery was assigned to, the batteries were also redesignated. At the same time, the batteries were ordered according to seniority, the first of a bewildering series of battery redesignations. C Horse Brigade, RA now comprised:

From 1866, the term “Royal Horse Artillery” appeared in Army List hence the brigade was designated C Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery from about this time. Another reorganization on 14 April 1877 saw the number of brigades reduced to three (of 10 batteries each). C Brigade was extensively reorganized: its batteries were transferred to the new B Brigade and it was reformed with the batteries of the old E and F Brigades.

The number of brigades was further reduced to two (of 13 batteries each) in 1882. C Brigade was broken up on 1 April 1882 and it batteries transferred to A and B Brigades. The brigade system was finally abolished in 1889. Henceforth, batteries were designated in a single alphabetical sequence in order of seniority from date of formation.

The brigade system was revived in 1901. Each brigade now commanded just two batteries and a small staff (a Lieutenant-Colonel in command, an adjutant and a brigade sergeant major). Initially, batteries were not assigned to brigades in any particular order, but in 1906, at the insistence of Edward VII, brigades were redesignated so that batteries were roughly in order of seniority (hence I Brigade commanded A Battery and B Battery).

III Brigade, RHA was formed on 1 March 1901 as the X Brigade-Division, RHA with D Battery and E Battery. In 1903 it was redesignated as X Brigade, RHA and was stationed at Mhow. On 1 October 1906, it was redesignated as III Brigade, RHA.

At the outbreak of World War I, the brigade was at Newbridge attached to 3rd Cavalry Brigade, still commanding D and E Batteries. On mobilization, it was assigned to The Cavalry Division (later 1st Cavalry Division) along with VII Brigade, RHA.

The division crossed to France between 15 and 18 August 1914, concentrated around Maubeuge between 18 and 20 August, and moved forward towards Mons on 21 August. Its first action was the Battle of Mons on 23 and 24 August where the division formed the left flank. It took part in the subsequent retreat, notably the Actions of Elouges and Solesmes, the Battle of Le Cateau, the Action at Néry and the First Battle of the Marne.

On 17 September, the brigade transferred to the 2nd Cavalry Division on formation. The brigade served with the 2nd Cavalry Division on the Western Front for the rest of the war. The brigade commander acted as Commander Royal Horse Artillery (CRHA) for the division. In practice, the batteries were permanently assigned to the cavalry brigades from September 1914 onwards:

In 1914, The division took part in the battles of Messines (12 October – 2 November) and Armentières (12–17 October) and in the First Battle of Ypres, notably the battle of Gheluvelt (29–31 October). In 1915, it took part in the Battle of Neuve Chapelle (10–12 March) and the Second Battle of Ypres (battles of St Julien, 26 April – 3 May, and Bellewaarde Ridge, 24 and 25 May). 1916 saw no notable actions, but in 1917 the brigade supported the division in a number of major actions including the Battle of Arras (9–11 April, First Battle of the Scarpe) and the Battle of Cambrai (November and December, including the Tank Attack, the Capture of Bourlon Wood and the German Counter-attacks).

1918 saw the return of the war of movement and the division was involved in a large number of actions: the First Battle of the Somme notably the Battle of St Quentin (21–23 March), the Battle of the Lys (battle of Hazebrouck, 14 and 15 April), the Battle of Amiens (8–11 August), the Second Battle of the Somme (the Battle of Albert, 21–23 August, and the Second Battle of Bapaume, 31 August – 3 September), and the battles of the Hindenburg Line (Battle of the Canal du Nord, 27 September – 1 October, Battle of Cambrai, 8 and 9 October, and the Pursuit to the Selle, 9–12 October). Its final action was in the Capture of Mons (11 November, 3rd Canadian Division with 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers and one section of D Battery, RHA).

At the Armistice, it was still serving with 2nd Cavalry Division with D, E and J Batteries RHA (eighteen 13 pounders).

The brigade moved from Belgium to Aldershot in March 1919, less E Battery, RHA which joined V Brigade, RHA in Germany. It was replaced by F Battery silicone water bottle sleeve, RHA as St John’s Wood Barracks. Between January and March 1920 it moved to India, where D Battery was stationed at Lucknow, F Battery at Ambala and J Battery at Secunderabad. In October 1923, the brigade moved to Egypt, before returning to Newport in November 1926 (D Battery at Trowbridge). It moved to Aldershot in November 1929 and Abbassia, Egypt in September 1937. By now it commanded D, J and M Batteries. The brigade was mechanized in Egypt, replacing its horses and 13 pounders with 3.7″ Howitzers towed by Dragon gun tractors.

In 1938, field artillery brigades were reorganized as two 12-gun batteries. As a result, the existing 6-gun batteries were linked in pairs. On 11 May, D Battery and J Battery were linked as D/J Battery, RHA and M Battery and P Battery (from 21st Anti Tank Regiment) were linked as M/P Battery, RHA.

With effect from May 1938, brigades were redesignated as regiments. This did not take effect in III Brigade until 27 August 1938 when it became 3rd Regiment, RHA.