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Alexander Emelianenko

Aleksander Vladimirovich Emelianenko (Russian: Александр Владимирович Емельяненко, tr. Aleksandr Vladimirovich Emel’janenko [ɐlʲɪkˈsandr vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ jɪmʲɪˈlʲjanʲɪnkə]; born (1981-08-02)August 2, 1981) is a Russian mixed martial artist. He is a three-time Russian national Combat Sambo champion and three-time world Combat Sambo champion in the absolute division. He is the younger brother of Fedor Emelianenko. Emelianenko was sentenced to a four and a half year prison sentence for aggravated sexual assault, but was released early on parole on October 26, 2016.

Emelianenko was born on (1981-08-02)August 2, 1981 in Stary Oskol, Soviet Union. in a family of a teacher, Olga Feodorovna Emelianenko, and a welder, Vladimir Alexanderovich Emelianenko. He is the third child in the family and has an older sister, Marina, an older brother reusable water bottle that looks like a plastic water bottle, Fedor, and a younger brother, Ivan.

In his childhood, since his parents were working during the day, Emelianenko spent a lot of time on the rough streets. During his early teens, he used to take part in street fights while his parents were working, going so far as being involved in a riot between neighborhoods.

Since his family did not have enough money, his mother used to prepare only a single meal for the entire week for Emelianenko and his brothers and he had to share clothing with his older brother.

Initially studying to become an electrician at the vocational school, Emelianenko finished his studies in 1999 as an electric welder after he was transferred several times to other technical specialties for bad behavior.

When he was a teenager, while his brother Fedor was in the Russian Army, his parents separated and, since then, Emelianenko has had a strained relationship with his father, with whom he rarely speaks.

Emelianenko started martial arts training at a very early age: his older brother, Fedor, often had to babysit him, and since Fedor did not want to miss his Sambo practice, he took young Alexander with him. At first, Emelianenko only observed the older kids, but soon he started mimicking their movements. He started his formal Sambo training when he joined elementary school, training with Vladimir Mihailovich Voronov.

Besides Sambo, Emelianenko practiced judo, wrestling and boxing and he also participated in other sports like basketball and football. At 16 years old, when he was in training school, his mother forbade him from training boxing but Emelianenko kept doing it in secret.

Also at 16 years old, Emelianenko became a Russian Master of Sport in judo.

In 1999, Emelianenko won the European Sambo championships.

In 2003 he won the World Combat Sambo championships and repeated this feat in 2004 and 2006.

In 2010, during February 19–22, Emelianeko took part in the Russian Cup of Combat Sambo representing Saint Petersburg, winning the heavyweight tournament (his brother Fedor injured his hand during the tournament) and earning the right to represent Russia at the World Championships.

Emelianenko participated in sambo at Sportaccord Combat Games 2010 in Beijing, where he won the silver medal in the +100 kg category.

Emelianenko has famously said of his fighting prowess, “My punches are like electric trains, if I miss, my opponent would catch a cold”

One of the youngest fighters to debut in Pride Fighting Championships at 22 years old, on October 5, 2003 (2003-10-05) at the event Pride Bushido 1, Emelianenko made his professional mixed martial arts (MMA) debut against Brazilian Assuerio Silva, defeating Silva by split decision.

In his next fight on December 31, 2003 (2003-12-31), Emelianenko fought against Brazilian fighter Angelo Araujo at Inoki Bom-Ba-Ye 2003 Inoki Festival, defeating Araujo by TKO after Emelianenko cut Araujo above the right eye and the doctor stopped the fight.

At PRIDE Bushido 3 on May 23, 2004 (2004-05-23), Emelianenko defeated Australian Matt Foki via rear naked choke in the first round.

In his fourth professional fight, Emelianenko was defeated in the first round via KO (head kick) by Croat Mirko Filipović, one of the top heavyweight contenders in MMA at the time, at Pride Final Conflict 2004 on August 15, 2004 (2004-08-15).

On October 9, 2004 (2004-10-09), Emelianenko rebounded with a victory over Brazilian Carlos “Carlão” Barreto by decision at M-1 MFC Middleweight GP, the first time that Emelianenko fought outside Japan.

Returning to Pride, on October 31, 2004 (2004-10-31) at Pride 28 Emelianenko knocked out English brawler James Thompson in eleven seconds, Emelianenko’s shortest fight to date.

In his second shortest fight, Emelianenko defeated Brazilian Ricardo Morais by KO (punches) in fifteen seconds on April 3, 2005 (2005-04-03) at Pride Bushido 6. Emelianenko has commented that he broke one of his hands while punching Morais.

In his third consecutive KO victory, on October 9, 2005 (2005-10-09) Emelianenko defeated Dutch kickboxer Rene Rooze in 28 second with a brutal knockout that left Rooze unconscious for some minutes at Bushido Rotterdam Rumble in the Netherlands.

At Pride Shockwave 2005 on December 31, 2005 (2005-12-31), Emelianenko submitted 1996 gold medalist judoka Pawel Nastula with a rear naked choke in the first round.

In Emelianenko’s second professional loss, on May 5, 2006 (2006-05-05) at the event Pride Total Elimination Absolute, during the second round of Pride 2006 Openweight Grand Prix, King of Pancrase Josh Barnett defeated Emelianenko with a keylock, after Emelianenko dominated the striking exchanges during the first round and broke Barnett’s nose. Emelianenko has claimed that he had fever before the fight, with the doctors advising him not to fight that night, which he ignored because it was the Openweight Grand Prix, the most important competition at the time.

In his last fight in Pride, Emelianenko defeated former teammate and fellow Russian Sergei Kharitonov via TKO in a back and forth match which ended in the first round after Emelianenko punched and kneed Kharitonov relentlessly on the ground, forcing the referee to stop the fight at Pride Final Conflict Absolute on September 10, 2006 (2006-09-10).

Two months after his last fight, on November 12, 2006 (2006-11-12) at the event 2 Hot 2 Handle: Pride & Honor in Rotterdam, Emelianenko faced Brazilian Jiu-jitsu specialist Fabrício Werdum, who defeated Emelianenko in the first round via submission (arm triangle choke). In an interview with Sherdog, Emelianenko stated that he did not train at all for the Werdum fight as his original opponent was not going to be Werdum, and he would like a rematch with him.

On April 14, 2007 (2007-04-14) at Bodog Fight Series II: Clash of the Nations, Emelianenko fought once again in Russia, knocking out American Eric Pele with punches in the first round, the first time that Pele was knocked out in his career.

In his next match, Emelianenko faced Dutch Jessie Gibbs (called Gibson at the time), who was a late replacement for Gilbert Yvel. Emelianenko defeated Gibbs with a kimura submission in the first round at M-1 Mix Fight Championship: Russia vs Europe on July 21, 2007 (2007-07-21).

Fighting for the first time in North America and originally scheduled to fight Wesley Correira, Emelianenko defeated American super heavyweight Dan Bobish via submission (guillotine choke) in the first round on October 19, 2007 (2007-10-19) at Hardcore Championship Fighting: Title Wave in Calgary workout waistband. This was Bobish’s last professional bout as he injured his back in the fight and refused to have surgery.

Returning to Saint Petersburg, on April 3, 2008 (2008-04-03), Emelianenko fought Brazilian Silvao Santos, defeating Santos by TKO (punch) at M-1 Challenge 2.

Emelianenko was signed to make his United States debut at Affliction: Banned on July 19, 2008 (2008-07-19). But at the weigh-ins for the event, it was announced that Emelianenko was unable to meet the licensing standards of the California State Athletic Commission (CSAC). Emelianenko was replaced by Gary Goodridge.

Emelianenko denied the rumors about a positive test for Hepatitis B, commenting that he was unable to compete because he was late for his medicals, arriving two days after the scheduled date for his medicals with the CSAC due to visa issues. Due to the health and privacy rules in California, the CSAC was not allowed to comment why Emelianenko was denied a license, but a member of the CSAC commented on a radio show that Emelianenko was not and would not be cleared in California, and that this would stand for all of the United States of America.

Emelianenko was also expected to appear at a planned upcoming Affliction event (Affliction: Day of Reckoning) on October 11, 2008 (2008-10-11), but was removed from any plan due to still having licensing problems on August 2008 (2008-08).

Returning to Europe, on November 21, 2008 (2008-11-21) at M-1 Global’s event M-1 Challenge 9 in Saint Petersburg, Emelianenko defeated South Korean Sang Soo Lee via KO (punches) in the first round.

Emelianenko left Red Devil Sport Club on March 3, 2009 (2009-03-03).

At the event ProFC 5: Russia vs. Europe on March 29, 2009 (2009-03-29), Emelianenko defeated fellow Russian Ibragim Magomedov by TKO in 51 seconds, after Magomedov was close to knocking Emelianenko out but, in the punching exchange, Emelianenko managed to cut Magomedov near his right eye, which prompted the referee to stop the fight after the ring doctor checked the injury.

Emelianenko was slated to compete on September 29, 2009 (2009-09-29) in South Korea at the event Fighting Mixed Combative 2 against Bulgarian Sambo practitioner Blagoi Ivanov, who had defeated Emelianenko’s brother Fedor in the 2008 World Sambo Championships, but Ivanov injured his hands in a previous match against Kazuyuki Fujita, which left the event date in the air, so Emelianenko decided to withdraw from the event altogether.

After a year without professional MMA matches, Emelianenko’s next fight was on April 23, 2010 (2010-04-23) at ProFC: Commonwealth Cup against Swedish wrestler Eddy Bengtsson, who Emelianenko defeated by TKO in a strange ending after Bengtsson fell down apparently with a light punch. Emelianenko founded his own training team, AE Team, which he started to present in his fight against Bengtsson.

A month later, on May 22, 2010 (2010-05-22) at the event Azerbaijan vs. Europe organized with the support of the Azerbaijan Pankration Federation (APF) and held in Baku, Emelianenko defeated Serbian fighter Miodrag Petkovic by TKO (punches) in the first round.

During July 2010 (2010-07), Emelianenko was in talks with Polish promotion KSW (Konfrontacja Sztuk Walki) for a possible match up against strongman Mariusz Pudzianowski and reached a verbal agreement. But on August 3, 2010 (2010-08-03) KSW co-owner Maciej Kawulski stated in a Polsat News interview that Emelianenko would likely not fight in KSW, claiming that Emelianenko had Hepatitis C. Emelianenko denied this and demanded an apology from KSW. During the controversy, a previous opponent of Emelianenko claimed that he believed that Emelianenko had Hepatitis B, not C.

On August 10, 2010 (2010-08-10), Polish MMA promotion Strefa Walk decided to make public the results of medical tests reportedly taken by Emelianenko. These tests are claimed to show that he had none of the varieties of hepatitis and, thus, was fit to fight for the promotion. There has not since been independent verification of the tests results or recognition of the results by independent licensing agencies.

After the controversy, Strefa Walk announced a fight between Emelianenko and Strikeforce champion Alistair Overeem, which Bas Boon, head of Golden Glory, confirmed to a Polish MMA website that it was in negotiations, but a few days later Overeem announced on Twitter that he was not going to fight Emelianenko.

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;19, 2010 (2010-10-19), Strefa Walk held a press conference in which it was officially announced that Emelianenko would face Austrian fighter Chris Mahle in the main event of Strefa Walk M&W: Emelianenko vs Mahle in Łódź, Poland on November 19, 2010 (2010-11-19). On November 17, 2010 (2010-11-17) Strefa Walk announced that the date of the bout of Emelianenko’s bout with Mahle was changed to February 25, 2011 (2011-02-25).

Before his fight with Mahle, Emelianenko faced Australian kickboxer Peter Graham on December 18, 2010 (2010-12-18), being defeated by Graham via TKO in the second round after Graham connected several leg kicks that rendered Emelianenko unable to continue the fight.

On February 10, 2011 (2011-02-10) it was announced that Emelianenko’s bout with Mahle was postponed to an unspecified later date due to the injury that Emelianenko received during his fight with Peter Graham.

Emelianenko faced Magomed Malikov at M-1 Challenge XXVIII on November 12, 2011 in Astrakhan, Russia. Emelianenko lost the fight via first round KO glass bottle distributors.

Alexander Emelianenko fought Tadas Rimkevicius at M-1 Challenge 31 in St. Petersburg, Russia. Emelianenko won the fight via TKO (punches) at 1:52 of round 2.

In his final match, Emelianenko submitted to a north–south choke from American grappler Jeff Monson in the second round of their contest at M-1 Challenge 35: Emelianenko vs. Monson at the Ice Palace in Saint Petersburg on November 15, 2012. He announced his retirement from MMA competition through an open letter to his fans on December 18, 2012, citing a chronic injury and a lack of time for his family as contributing factors in his decision.

About three months after announcing his retirement, Emelianenko announced that he is making a comeback into MMA with ProFC. His first match since retirement however was at the Legend Fighting Show against American MMA superstar Bob Sapp on May 25, 2013, in Moscow. Alexander defeated Bob Sapp by TKO in Round 1. Alexander was expected to fight Darrill Schoonover on August 25 at the ProFC 50 event in Rostov-on-Don in Russia, but withdrew due to a knee injury. In a video released on the ProFC website, Emelianenko said that he still hopes to go ahead with the much-anticipated rematch with Mirko Cro Cop scheduled for November under the Legend Fighting Show banner.

On October 3, 2009 (2009-10-03), Emelianenko made his professional boxing debut against Khizir Pliev, an army boxing champion from Ingushetia who was also making his professional debut, in a fight that ended in a draw.

Emelianenko moved from his native city, Stary Oskol, to Saint Petersburg in 2003 where he met his future wife. Before moving out of Stary Oskol, Emelianenko regularly trained with his brother Fedor, although they still train together occasionally.

Emelianenko married his wife on September 4, 2004 (2004-09-04). The couple has two daughters one who was born in 2007 and another daughter from Olga’s previous relationship.

Originally a member of Red Devil Sport Club after he and his brother Fedor left Russian Top Team, Emelianenko is currently at odds with Red Devil Sport Club’s and Fedor’s manager Vadim Finkelstein.

In an interview published on March 21, 2008 (2008-03-21), his brother Fedor, in response to a direct question, confirmed that Aleksander had spent time in a prison after he was sentenced to 5 years, but was released after 3.5 years. Aleksander, however, has several times denied ever spending time in prison, including in an interview published on December 5, 2008 (2008-12-05) in the same publication where his brother commented about the issue. Some commentators have put in doubt Emelianenko’s prison time because of Japan’s strict immigration policy against convicted felons, which normally would not allow him to fight in Japan as he has done, while others point out that some of his tattoos are an indication that he spent some time in prison, although some of his tattoos would indicate a status which he could not achieve at the time of his imprisonment for being too young.

Emelianenko has studied English and, in 2003, he enrolled himself in economics courses at the Belgorod State University from which he graduated in 2009 with a bachelor’s degree.

Emelianenko has several tattoos on his body and claims that they do not really have a meaning for him, he just likes them as a hobby.

Emelianenko likes hunting and once told in the interview that he killed a bear by piercing through its throat with bear spear and then stabbing it in the heart with a knife, a traditional way of Russian bear hunting, nowadays almost never practiced.

After the 2008 South Ossetia Conflict he went to South Ossetia to train in preparation for his bout against Sang Soo Lee, in a sign of solidarity with the Ossetian people.

In a controversy apparently sparked by Emelianenko’s tattoos, a story shown in Russian channel NTV on March 20, 2010 (2010-03-20) presented Emelianenko as a Russian nationalist, equated with Roman Zentsov, which Emelianenko quickly denied, stating that he was only engaged in the development of MMA in his country, with no political motivations, especially for extremist groups.

Emelianenko has made some appearances in TV shows, including a Korean comedy show and Russia Channel One’s show Big Races where he participated and lost two teeth in a competition against a bull in 2010.

Emelianenko also participated as one of the protagonists, along with fellow MMA fighter Julia Berezikova and other Russian athletes, in the 2010 Russian TV series starring Yevgeni Sidikhin, Olympic Village.

Emelianenko was accused of having assaulted and raped his former housekeeper Polina Stepanova, on May 2, 2014, as well as stealing her passport. Emelianenko, pleaded not guilty and claimed the sex was consensual. Prosecutors were asking for five years in prison for Emelianenko. On May 19, 2015, Emelianenko was found guilty of sexual assault and convicted to four and a half years in prison along with a $1000 (US) fine. On 20 May 2015, his promoter Oleg Rajewski stated that he would appeal the decision. On 24 September 2015, the appeal was declined. Emelianenko was released on parole in October 2016. He’s seeking a return to MMA in 2017.

Gottfried Kinkel

Gottfried Kinkel, de son nom complet Johann Gottfried Kinkel ( à Oberkassel (Bonn) – à Zurich) était un Allemand actif comme théologue protestant, écrivain, auteur de chants religieux et homme politique dans le mouvement démocratique.

Kinkel était le fils d’un pasteur qui lui a donné son prénom et de son épouse Sibylla Marie Beckmann. En 1831, après avoir passé son Abitur, Kinkel s’inscrit en théologie à l’université de Bonn. En 1834, il migre à Berlin où il continue à étudier la théologie jusqu’en 1835. Dans les années 1836 à 1838, il passe avec succès les examens requis au Consistoire à Koblenz et à la faculté de théologie à Bonn, à laquelle il appartient à partir de 1837 en tant que professeur d’histoire chrétienne.

Début 1839, il rencontre la fille de son ancien professeur Peter Mockel, Johanna, qui est compositeur et poète et que Nietzsche qualifiait de « meilleure amie du monde ». Cette relation devint bientôt un sujet de conversation dans toute la ville, car Johanna non seulement était catholique, mais était séparée de son mari. Mais au mois de septembre, ils formèrent un couple. Lors d’une traversée du Rhin, l’embarcation chavira, et Kinkel sauva la jeune femme, qui ne savait pas nager. Le scandale s’amplifia quand Johanna, à qui sa religion interdisait un remariage, se convertit à la confession protestante. Comme le Code Napoléon, qui était en vigueur à cette époque en Rhénanie, prescrivait 36 mois d’abstinence entre le divorce et le remariage et que l’époux de Johanna ne consentit au divorce qu’en 1840, le mariage avec Kinkel n’eut lieu qu’en 1843. Emmanuel Geibel, un ami commun, fut témoin.

Le 29 juin 1840, Gottfried et la future Johanna Kinkel fondèrent ensemble à Bonn, avec Sebastian Longard et Andreas Simons, le Maikäferbund (littéralement : « le groupe du hanneton »), un cercle littéraire qui exista jusqu’en mai 1847.

Après son mariage, Kinkel n’était plus fiable aux yeux de la faculté de théologie, dont il fut détaché le 28 novembre 1845 pour rejoindre la faculté de philosophie. À partir de 1846, Kinkel exerça comme professeur extraordinaire d’histoire de l’art et de la littérature à l’Université de Bonn.

Deux ans plus tard, en 1848, il devint rédacteur du Bonner Zeitung. Le 31 mai de la même année, il fonda l’association démocratique de Bonn. Le 5 février 1849, il est élu à l’assemblée nationale prussienne en tant que candidat démocrate de la circonscription Bonn-Sieg. Et bientôt, porté l’insatisfaction politique générale, il devint le personnage emblématique de ceux qui voulaient fonder une république. Le 19 janvier 1850, il est mis en accusation pour sa participation à l’attaque de mai 1849 contre l’armurerie de Siegburg mais est acquitté le 2 mai 1850 par la cour d’assise de Cologne.

En 1849, Kinkel prit part à la révolution de Baden. Après la défaite de l’armée révolutionnaire à Rastatt, il fut capturé par les troupes prussiennes à Gaggenau dortmund football shirt. Il fut d’abord emprisonné dans les casemates de Rastatt, puis dans la tour de l’hôtel de ville de Karlsruhe. Le 4 août, le tribunal de guerre prussien le condamna à la prison à vie, alors que son ami Carl Schurz évitait l’emprisonnement à Rastatt en fuyant par une canalisation. Il fut ensuite décidé qu’il purgerait sa peine dans une prison civile et non militaire. Il fut transféré d’abord à Bruchsal puis dans la prison prussienne de Naugard en Poméranie. Après le procès à Cologne sur l’attaque de l’armurerie de Siegburg fabric shaver, il est emmené en mai 1850 dans la prison de Spandau. Kinkel, presque du jour au lendemain glass bottle distributors, devint un martyr de la révolution. Dans de nombreuses villes se formaient des « comités Kinkel » qui rassemblaient de l’argent pour aider sa famille.

En secret, Carl Schurz lui apporta aussi son soutien, jusqu’à ce que, au cours de la nuit de 6 au 7 novembre 1850, il organise son évasion spectaculaire de la prison de Spandau à Berlin. Les deux amis traversent le Mecklembourg, passant par Rostock et Warnemünde, d’où ils prennent le 17 novembre 1849 un bateau pour le Royaume-Uni : le 1er décembre 1850, ils accostent à Édimbourg d’où ils gagnent Londres par le train. En janvier 1851, Johanna Kinkel, accompagnée de ses quatre enfants, rejoignit son mari à Londres. En septembre, Kinkel gagna les États-Unis, entre autres pour réunir des fonds pour une armée de libération, sur l’idée de Giuseppe Mazzini. Il arriva le 14 septembre 1851 à New York y resta jusqu’au 25 février 1852. Il y retrouva d’autres révolutionnaires allemands, notamment Friedrich Hecker, qui avait entrepris de vivre en paysan mais avec lequel il se lia d’amitié. Pendant ce temps, sa famille restait à Londres. En mars 1852, Kinkel était de retour à Londres où il devint professeur d’histoire littéraire au Hyde-Park-College, puis au Bedford College.

Le 15 novembre 1858 meurt son épouse Johanna à la suite de problèmes cardiaques. Peu après, Kinkel fonde à Londres le journal germanophone Hermann, dont il devient le rédacteur en chef. Il abandonna cette fonction dès l’été 1859 ; cependant, le journal se développe avec succès sous la direction de son successeur Ernst Juch et devint plus tard le Londoner Zeitung, qui parut jusqu’en 1914. En 1860, Kinkel épouse Minna Werner, qui vit à Londres mais vient de Königsberg. En 1861, le gouvernement britannique le charge des conférences sur l’histoire de l’art ancien et moderne au South Kensington Museum. Il représenta ainsi le socle de l’histoire de l’art en tant que discipline en Grande-Bretagne. Il est nommé en 1863 examinateur à l’université de Londres.

Il fonda l’année suivante avec son ami D. Leitner le Verein für Wissenschaft und Kunst à Londres (littéralement, l’« association pour la science et l’art »).

En 1866, il accepte un poste de professeur d’histoire de l’art à l’École polytechnique fédérale de Zurich, établissement précurseur dans le principe de l’université populaire. Il y fonda peu après le Cabinet zurichois des gravures.

Gottfried Kinkel mourut le 13 novembre 1882 à Zürich après une longue maladie, sans bénéficier d’amnistie de la part de l’État prussien. Il fut enterré dans le cimetière zurichois de Sihlfeld. La rue Kinkel dans le sixième arrondissement de Zurich a reçu son nom.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Anna Gréki

Colette Anna Grégoire (known as Anna Gréki; 14 March 1931 – 6 January 1966) was an Algerian poet of French origin. She married an Algerian glass bottle distributors, considered herself Algerian, and was involved in the struggle for Algeria’s independence from France. Her work shows her love of the Aurès Mountains where she grew up, and her strong political beliefs.

Colette Anna Grégoire was born on 14 March 1931 in Batna, Algeria. She grew up in Menaâ, a small town in the Aurès Mountains, in a Chaoui Berber community. She was from a third-generation French family in Algeria, and was the only child of a family of progressive teachers who were very integrated into the Muslim culture. Her father taught elementary school. She became very conscious of the discrimination and injustice of the colonial system. As an adolescent she was extremely poor, but was helped by the community.

Colette Grégoire attended university in Paris, but returned to Algeria before graduating to assist in the struggle for independence metal meat tenderiser. She joined the Parti Communiste Algérien (PCA). In 1955 she was a communist at a time when the communist party was banned. She always also fought for equal rights for women. Grégoire was arrested in April 1957 and imprisoned in Algiers at the Barberousse prison. Women here were beaten, abused and tortured with water and electricity. She was sent to an internment camp, and in 1958 was deported, probably because of her French origins.

Colette Grégoire married in 1960. Her husband was an Algerian named Melki. Her pen-name Anna Gréki is formed from their two last names. After independence in 1962 Colette Grégoire returned to Algeria. In 1963 she was one of the few Europeans to point out the discrimination in the law of 1963 which said that both parents should be from a paternal line born in Algeria and should be Muslim. In 1965 she obtained her BA in French Literature and became a high school teacher in Algiers. She taught in the Lycée Abdelkader. Colette Grégoire died on 6 January 1966 during childbirth, at the age of 34.

Anna Gréki’s poetry reflects her love of her native land, the Aurès, and her political beliefs. She wrote of her native country,

Mon enfance et les délices, naquirent là à Menaa 5s waterproof case, commune mixte Arris, et mes passions après vingt ans, sont le fruit de leurs prédilections.. water bottle belt for running. Tout ce qui me touche en ce monde jusqu’à l’âme, sort d’un massif peint en rose et blanc sur les cartes. (My childhood and delights were born there at Menaa, a mixed Arris commune, and after twenty years my passions are the fruit… Everything that touches me to the soul in this world comes from a massif shown in pink and white on the maps.)

Anna Gréki’s poetry was among the best to be produced during the Algerian war of independence. She praised the women who had the courage to join the struggle for freedom, and was optimistic about the future. She did not stress the trouble she experienced in prison, but tried to raise the morale of other women. She wrote,

Beyond the walls closed like clenched fists
Through the bars encircling the sun
Our thoughts are vertical …

And again,

I press you against my breast my sister
Builder of liberty and tenderness
And I say to you await tomorrow
For we know
The future is soon
The future is for tomorrow.

Anna Gréki published one volume of poetry during her lifetime, Algérie capitale Alger, published in 1963 in Tunisia. The preface to this work was written by Mostefa Lacheraf. Other works, published posthumously, are:

Inzidenz (Geometrie)

Inzidenz ist in der Geometrie die einfachste Beziehung, die zwischen geometrischen Elementen wie Punkt, Gerade, Kreis, Ebene etc. auftreten kann. Inzidenz soll bestehen, wenn beispielsweise ein Punkt auf einer Geraden liegt, eine Ebene eine Gerade enthält oder jeweils umgekehrt. Mathematisch gesprochen handelt es sich also um eine Relation, d. h. um eine Teilmenge der Vereinigung der kartesischen Produkte der Menge der Punkte mit der Menge der Geraden, der Menge der Geraden mit der Menge der Punkte, der Menge der Ebenen mit der Menge der Geraden, der Menge der Punkte mit der Menge der Ebenen etc.

Eine geometrische Struktur mit Inzidenzrelation ist eine mathematische Struktur

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wird auch als Fahnenmenge der Struktur bezeichnet.

Der Inzidenzbegriff spielt spätestens seit David Hilberts axiomatischer Grundlegung in der Geometrie eine Rolle, da mit Hilberts Ansatz nicht mehr versucht wird, Beschreibungen der „Natur“ von geometrischen Objekten zu geben, sondern diese Objekte allein durch ihre mathematisch fassbaren Beziehungen untereinander definiert werden. Hilbert nennt seine Inzidenzaxiome „Axiome der Verknüpfung“ und fasst sie in der Gruppe I seines Axiomensystems zusammen. Das Parallelenaxiom, das formal ebenfalls zu den Inzidenzaxiomen gehört, bildet bei Hilbert eine eigene Gruppe (IV). Wenn man auf das Parallelenaxiom verzichtet und Hilberts Axiomengruppe III (Axiome der Kongruenz) abschwächt, gelangt man zur absoluten Geometrie, einer Verallgemeinerung auch für nichteuklidische Geometrien.

Unter Inzidenzgeometrie versteht man in der synthetischen Geometrie noch allgemeiner eine geometrische Struktur, die allein auf Inzidenzaxiomen (und eventuell weiteren Reichhaltigkeitsaxiomen) beruht.

In der neueren, insbesondere der angloamerikanische Literatur wird auf den Begriff der Inzidenz (als gesondert definierte Relation) häufig verzichtet und die Relation inhaltlich weitgehend durch die „ist Element von“-Relation oder allgemeiner „ist Teilmenge von“-Relation und deren Umkehrungen ersetzt. Dann ist die Inzidenz ein Oberbegriff für diese mengentheoretisch definierten Relationen. Der Vorteil der klassischen Inzidenzrelation besteht darin, dass diese Relation symmetrisch definiert werden kann und damit elegantere Formulierungen für dualisierbare Aussagen der projektiven Geometrie zulässt. Daneben kann man prinzipiell auf diese Weise auch eine Geometrie beschreiben, in der es unterschiedliche leere Objekte gibt, etwa Geraden, die mit keinem Punkt inzidieren. Solche Anwendungen haben sich als wenig fruchtbar erwiesen und kaum überdauert.

Der ursprüngliche, historische Zweck, eine „Enthalten oder Umfassen“-Relation zu definieren, die nicht auf der Elementrelation und der Teilmengenrelation aufbaut, war es wohl, möglichst wenige Axiome der Mengenlehre beim Aufbau der Geometrie zu benutzen. Die in Relation stehenden Objekte sind aus heutiger Sicht auch bei einer Formulierung der geometrischen Axiome mit einer nichtmengentheoretischen Inzidenzrelation (bei der zum Beispiel Geraden keine Punktmengen sind, aber mit Punkten inzidieren können) als Mengen im Sinne der Zermelo-Fraenkel-Mengenlehre anzusehen.

Neben den bekannten Sprechweisen „ein Punkt p liegt auf einer Geraden G“ oder „eine Ebene







E






{\displaystyle {\mathcal {E}}}


enthält eine Gerade G“ für „p inzidiert mit G“ bzw. „G inzidiert mit







E






{\displaystyle {\mathcal {E}}}


“ sind auch folgende Sprechweisen üblich: