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Copa Confraternidad (1988)

La Copa Confraternidad fue la competición que estaba pactada para ser la Copa Interamericana de 1988 entre el América de México (Campeón de la Copa de Campeones de la Concacaf) y Peñarol de Uruguay (Campeón de la Copa Libertadores).

A pesar de estar programada desde diciembre de 1987 waterproof pack, horas antes de que se disputara el partido en Estados Unidos, los presidentes de la Concacaf y Conmebol, Joaquín Soria Terrazas y Nicolás Leoz respectivamente, notificaron al promotor del encuentro, Enrique Sokra bottled glass water, que el 10% de las ganancias brutas del partido debían ir a las arcas de ambas confederaciones waterproof running belt. El promotor rechazó esas condiciones, debido a esto se decidió seguir con el encuentro con el nombre de Copa Confraternidad ya sin el aval de ninguna confederación, a pesar de las amenazas a los dos equipos de que podrían ser sancionados.

El partido originalmente se iba a disputar el 19 de abril de 1988, no obstante, una intensa lluvia hizo que se aplazara dos días. El 21 de abril el encuentro se jugó y después de un empate a dos goles en tiempo reglamentario, el América se coronó en penales glass bottle drinks.

Finalmente el América fue suspendido 2 años de toda competencia organizada por la Concacaf y posteriormente no pudo disputar la Copa de Campeones de la Concacaf 1989, derecho que había ganado al haber sido campeón de liga en la temporada 1987-88.

Se fueron decidiendo a lo largo de 1987 entre las dos máximas competiciones de las confederaciones del continente Americano.

Antonio Carlos Santos
Zague
Robinson Hernández
Carlos Hermosillo
Guillermo Huerta

Ricardo Viera
Jorge Gonçalves
José Herrera
Eliseo Rivero
Adolfo Barán


Pierre Rolland

Pierre Rolland (født 10. oktober 1986) er en fransk professionel cykelrytter

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, som cykler for det professionelle cykelhold Europcar fra 2011 til 2015. I 2011 vandt Pierre Rolland Alpe d’Huez-etapen i Tour de France og erobrede samtidig den hvide ungdomstrøje. I 2012 vandt han 11 Waterproof Phone Bag. etape best looking water bottle.

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Sucker (zoology)

Sucker in zoology refers to specialised attachment organ of an animal. It acts as an adhesion device in parasitic worms, cephalopods, and certain fishes and bats. It is a muscular structure for suction on the host or substrate. In parasitic worms such as annelids, flatworms and roundworms, suckers are the organs of attachment to the host tissues. In tapeworms and flukes, they are parasitic adaptation for attachment on the internal tissues of the host, such as intestines and blood vessels. In roundworms they serve as attachment between individual particularly during mating. In annelids, a sucker can be both functional mouth and locomotory organ. The structure and number of suckers are often used as basic taxonomic diagnosis between different species, since they are unique in each species. In tapeworms there are two distinct classes of suckers, namely “bothridia” for true suckers, and “bothria” for false suckers. In digenetic flukes there are oral sucker at the mouth and ventral sucker (or acetabulum) posterior to the mouth. Roundworms have their sucker just in front of the anus, hence, is often called preanal sucker.

Among chordates some fishes and mammals have suckers, which are used as holdfast to substrata. Among fishes some members of the order Perciformes have modified fins to form sucker. Sucker-footed bats have unusual suckers on their limbs and are specially useful during roosting.

In the class Turbellaria, only the species of the order Temnocephalida are parasitic and possess an adhesive disc. The sucker is present at the posterior end on the ventral side. It is lined with syncytial epidermis and numerous microvilli. Beneath the apical membrane are many vacuoles and dense bodies. It is attached to the body through a short stalk. Densely packed muscle fibres link the sucker with the main body through the stalk.

Udonellids are symbiotic to fishes, on which body they remain attached using a sucker. The sucker is a membranous extension of the posterior end. It has an indistinct stalk and the anterior surface is lined with microvilli. Some portion of the tegument has interconnected surface extension appearing as loops. The interior is divided into several compartments which are surrounded by interconnected connective tissue. The connective tissues are linked with muscles that extend into the main body.

In tapeworms, the sucker is called bothridium (plural “bothridia”) to differentiate it from sucker-like protrusion called bothria in some species.

Among the flukes belonging to class Digenea, there are two suckers, namely an oral sucker and a ventral sucker (often called acetabulum). The oral sucker is at the tip of the anterior body and directly surrounds the mouth. The ventral sucker is located halfway to the middle of the body on the ventral side. They are both used for attachment to intestinal wall and blood vessels. The detailed structure of the suckers, presence or absence of hooks, and their exact position on the body are major taxonnomic keys between species.

In the class Monogenea, buccal organs, also known as buccal suckers, are present in worm parasites of the order Mazocraeidea. They are known to have muscular, glandular, and sensory components thought to play some role in blood feeding. In other species like Anoplodiscus, the sucker is a posterior extension, connected to the main body through a small stalk. The surface is profusely covered with microvilli. It is used for symbiotic association with fishes glass bottle drinks.

Parasitic roundworms such as species of Ascaridia and Heterakis possess a single sucker at the posterior end of the body lime squeezer, just in front of anus, hence is often called preanal sucker. Only the male roundworms have them, and are used for attachment to female during mating. The sucker is a protruding cuticle and circular in shape.

Annelid worms such as leeches all have an anterior (oral) sucker formed from the first six segments of their body, which is used to connect to a host for feeding. It also releases an anaesthetic to prevent the host from feeling pain while it sucks blood. They use a combination of mucus and suction (caused by concentric muscles in those six segments) to stay attached and secrete an anti-clotting enzyme, hirudin, into the host’s blood stream. The medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) has two suckers, one at each end, called the anterior and posterior sucker. The posterior is mainly used for leverage while the anterior sucker, consisting of the jaw and teeth, is where the feeding takes place. During locomotion directional movement of the body is done by successive attachment and detachment of the oral sucker and the acetabulum.

Cepaholopods are characterised by elongated appendages for locomotion and grasping object. There are two main types: arms, such as in octopus, bearing numerous suckers along its ventral surface; and tentacles, such as in squid and cuttlefish, having a single sucker at the tip. Each sucker is a circular and bowl-like curved. It in turn has two distinct parts: an outer shallow cavity called infundibulum and a central hollow cavity called acetabulum. Both these structures are thick muscles, and are covered with chitinous cuticle to make a protective surface. It is used for grasping substratum, catching prey and for locommotory accessory. When the sucker attaches itself on an object, the infundibulum maily provides adhesion while the central acetabulum is quite free. The sequential muscle contraction the infundibulum and acetabulum causes attachment and detachment.

Species of fish belonging to the families Gobiidae, Echeneidae and Cyclopteridae have suckers which are modified fins. These fishes use their suckers to substrata or to bigger fishes. In gobies the fused pelvic fins form a disc-shaped sucker. Amphidromous gobies particularly use their suckers for climbing through waterfalls during their developmental migrations. In remoras the sucker is modified dorsal fin. In lumpsuckers the sucker is modified pelvic fins, located ventrally, and behind the pectoral fins.

Certain species of bats such as Madagascar sucker-footed bat and Western sucker-footed bat, are generally called “sucker-footed bats” because of suckers on their limbs. They are members of the family Myzopodidae and endemic to Madagascar. They have small cups of suckers on their wrists and ankles. They roost inside the rolled leaves of palm trees, using their suckers to attach themselves to the smooth surface.