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Palace of Cortés, Cuernavaca

The Palace of Cortés (Spanish: Palacio de Cortés) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, built in 1526, is the oldest conserved colonial-era civil structure in the continental Americas. The architecture is gothic mudejar, typical of the early 16th century colonial architecture. The building began as a fortified residence for conqueror Hernán Cortés and his aristocratic second wife, Doña Juana Zúñiga. It was built in 1526, over a Tlahuica Aztec tribute collection center, which was destroyed by the Spanish during the Conquest. Cortés replaced it with a personal residence to assert authority over the newly conquered peoples. As Cortés’s residence, it reached its height in the 1530s, but the family eventually abandoned it due to on-going legal troubles. In the 18th century, colonial authorities had the structure renovated and used it as a barracks and jail. During the Mexican War of Independence, it held prisoners such as José María Morelos y Pavón. After the war, it became the seat of government for the state of Morelos until the late 20th century, when the state government moved out and the structure was renovated and converted into the current Museo Regional Cuauhnahuac, or regional museum, with exhibits on the history of Morelos.


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, the site of this palace was a tribute gathering place, first for Tlahuica rulers gel belt running, then for the Aztecs after they conquered what is now Morelos in the 15th century. After the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Cortes had the pre-Hispanic building destroyed and a palace for himself built in its place in 1526. Cortés chose Cuernavaca as one of his residences because of the fertility of the lands surrounding it. The initial structure was built as a fortress, although it was much smaller than what currently stands. What is now the central part of the structure, marked by the use of arches on the balconies, corresponds to the original Cortés structure. This structure was built with thick walls, merlons and other defensive elements, as well as a well-supplied armory with arquebusiers, muskets, cannons and other weapons of the era. However, most of the building was designed as a residence with its own mill, stables, gardens, ovens and more. The main body of the palace was built with two galleries on the west side containing four arches in each of its two levels, and living quarters were built on the north and south sides. The watchtower was added when Cortés was named the Captain General and Governor of New Spain . As the conqueror of Mexico and the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, the residence was richly decorated. Its walls were covered with twenty one tapestries, and its chapel contained crosses and other religious paraphernalia in gold and silver. Cortés’ need for protection against the newly conquered peoples was real. During one of his visits to the palace, Cortés was attacked by Tlahuica warriors who wanted to kill him. The place where this occurred is called the Callejón del Diablo or Devil’s Alley. The attack is documented, but the legend also states that Cortés reached safety by jumping a five meter wide crevice on his horse named Rucio. This portion is not supported by the records.

Cortés brought his second wife, Doña Juana de Zúñiga to live at the palace, where she stayed until after Cortés death in 1547. Their son and heir Don Martín Cortés, 2nd Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca was born at this palace. However, Cortés himself did not spend much time here. He spent most of his time after the Conquest organizing expeditions, building ships on the Pacific coast, touring his encomienda holdings as Marquis and introducing crops such as sugar cane with success. Cortés had three haciendas in the Cuernavaca area, and eventually spent most of his time in Morelos at one of these, especially Atlacomulco.

As Cortés’s residence, the importance of the building reached was at its highest in the 1530s, when Cortés visited it frequently. The first expansion was done between 1531 and 1535 electric toothpaste dispenser, when Cuernavaca was made the administrative center of Cortés’ domains. In 1540, Cortés traveled to Spain, but could not return to Mexico. Cortés died in 1547.

After Cortés’s death, his son Don Martin, as the Marquis del Valle de Oaxaca, inherited it. From 1629 to 1747, the family gradually abandoned it, and the building was used as an ironworks, tannery, and textiles workshop. In the mid 18th century, colonial authorities ordered the restoration of the then run-down building. Three architects handled the design work, but most is thought to have been done by Gregorio Cayteano Durán. After restoration, the government used the building as a barracks and as a jail. During the Mexican War of Independence, it housed famous prisoners, such as José María Morelos y Pavon and Ignacio López Rayón. It is also possible that mayors of Cuernavaca used part of the building as the mayoral residence.

In 1855, it was the site of the provisional government of the country of Mexican liberal Juan Álvarez as he fought against conservative Antonio López de Santa Anna. From 1864 to 1866, it was a summer residence of Emperor Maximilian as he made frequent visits to Cuernavaca. In 1872, the palace was made the site of the Morelos state government. This same year, Governor Francisco Leyva expanded the north end, and had the stairwell and other areas redone in French style, which was popular at the time. The palace remained the government seat for about a century.

Because of time and the occasional earthquake, new renovation efforts were needed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During this time, one of its most characteristic elements, a fifteen meter cylindrical tower on the northwest corner, was added. Further repairs were made in the late 1920s and in 1930, Diego Rivera finished murals that decorate the second floor arcade. In 1949, a section for offices where added.

Between 1971 and 1973, the Department of Colonial Monuments of Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia worked to recover the basic form of the palace as it was in the 16th century, using building techniques from that time and studying the archeology of the original sections. Modern materials were used to reinforce some sections.

After restoration work by the INAH in the 1970s, the building was converted into the Museo Regional Cuauhnahuac. It is one of many regional museums in Mexico, which are dedicated to local history and the role the region has played in Mexico’s history. This museum in considered both a historical and archeological museum because of the collection, the building it is housed in, and the archeological site on which it sits. The museum does not do conservation work on its collection, instead relying on the INAH in Morelos for this. Maintenance costs for the museum are high because specialized care is needed for both the collection and the building. However, much of the museum’s budget is provided by INAH, especially for the building.

The museum has nineteen halls, which feature a collection of objects from the history of the state of Morelos, beginning with its earliest human settlers to the present day. Many of the rooms are devoted to prehistoric and pre-Hispanic era pieces from mammoth fossils to migration maps, to pottery and stone pieces. The most important Morelos archeological site covered is Xochicalco, though there are pieces from most of the state’s Tlahuicas and Mexicas (Aztecs) sites. Rooms devoted to the colonial period are few in number, but include religious items, items related to Hernán Cortés, and concerning trade between Mexico and Asia. The post-independence period exhibit mostly relates to the continuance of the hacienda system, especially haciendas that produced sugar through the Porfirio Díaz period and the Mexican Revolution. There are also exhibits related to modern-day Morelos, especially indigenous crafts and traditions.

On the second floor, there is a series of mural painted by Diego Rivera in 1930, which depict the history of the state goalkeeper gloves junior. The mural is called “La conquista y revolución.” The mural was restored and protective measures added in the 1990s, funded by private groups and the Centro Nacional de Conservación del Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes. In the former Salón del Congreso or Congress Hall, there work done by Salvador Tarajona in 1938.

The palace is located on a hill at the center of the city. It was built over the ruins of a “tlatlocayacalli,” or place where tribute was collected beginning with Tlahuica rulers, then the Aztecs. The Spanish typically built their important structure over indigenous ones that were destroyed during the Conquest. However, most of Spanish constructions were churches. The palace is one of few civil constructions built for this purpose. The initial construction was small, four rooms surrounding a courtyard and bounded by arches. It is modeled after the Alcázar de Colón in Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic .

Today, the enlarged building is the property of the federal government. It is listed by the INAH as in good condition—and at almost 500 years old, is the oldest preserved colonial era civil structure in Mexico. The building is made of local stone, using the old pre-Hispanic structure as a foundation. It contains merlons for defensive purposes, which was common for the era. There is a cylindrical tower on the northwest corner, but his was added in the late 19th century. Local lore states that there are underground passages between the palace and the cathedral complex. However, none have been found and similar stories are common in other parts of Mexico with large colonial structures.

The Palace of Cortés archeological site extends from under the palace itself to the main square of the city. The palace was built over a “tlatlocayacalli” or place where tribute was collected beginning with the area’s Tlahuica rulers and later the Aztecs. This tribute house was very likely extensive and luxurious as the then city-state was powerful. This function as a symbol of power prompted the Spanish to destroy it and replace it with a structure of their own. The old Tlahuica/Aztec structure is best seen in the areas in front of the current palace and in the courtyards of the same. It is one of the few Aztec era palaces that have been excavated by archeologists. However, little of the original building remains after it was destroyed by Cortés.

When the palace was renovated in the 1970s, archeological work, directed by Jorge Angulo Villaseñor, was done around and under the building. Through strategically placed wells, the project uncovered various walls, floors, burials and other elements from the Tlahuica to colonial eras. The best conserved areas are those in front of the building and in the interior courtyards. Important artifacts were recovered from the Teopanzolco period, under those from the Aztec period, both of which are covered by the colonial era building. These artifacts established the timeline of the Tlahuica period of Cuernavaca. Since then, more excavations have uncovered additional ruins.


Luis Belmonte Bermúdez

Luis Belmonte Bermúdez (Siviglia, 1578 – Madrid, 1650) è stato un poeta, drammaturgo, e storico delle Indie del secolo d’oro spagnolo.

Si discute la data di nascita, compresa tra la fine 1570 e l’inizio 1590. Mentre era ancora molto giovane, si recò in Messico e l’anno seguente Perù. Da allora si dedicò alla letteratura. Ha ricoperto il ruolo di storico e di segretario del generale Pedro Fernández de Quirós. Egli ha lasciato una Historia del descubrimiento de las regiones Austriales hecho por el general Pedro Fernández de Quirós. Dopo un ulteriore soggiorno in Messico tornò in Spagna nel 1616 e si stabilì a Siviglia. Nel 1620 è a Madrid dove partecipa alla Fiera poetica di San Isidro. Da allora, lascia la poesia e si dedica interamente alla dramma goalkeeper gloves junior. Autore di due poesie epiche: La aurora de Cristo e La Hispálica, intorno alla conquista di Siviglia. Si conservano anche una mezza dozzina di opere teatrali, le più celebrate sono El mayor contrario amigo e Diablo predicador. Scritte anonime per le libertà di contenuto di cui si facevano portavoci i protagonisti dei drammi, hanno avuto problemi con la censura, diversi anni dopo drinking glasses from bottles. Suoi contemporanei videro in essa una celebrazione della vita francescana e la pratica della carità, poi intesa come una più vasta critica anticlericale. In collaborazione con Agustin Moreto e Martínez de Meneses ha scritto El rinnegato Valladolid, una commedia mitologica: Il lavoro di Ulisse e La mejor luna africana (quest’ultima insieme anche a Juan Vélez de Guevara, Luis Vélez de Guevara, Alfaro, Sigler de Huerta, Jerónimo de Cáncer e Pedro Rosete Niño).

Ludwig Niggl

Ludwig Niggl (* 7. Januar 1875 in Aibling; † 25. Dezember 1971 in Straubing) war ein deutscher Gutsverwalter und Grünlandwissenschaftler. Er gilt als Begründer der Grünlandbewegung in Deutschland goalkeeper gloves junior.

Ludwig Niggl absolvierte nach dem Besuch des Gymnasiums in Regensburg eine zweijährige Lehrzeit und begann 1893 ein Landwirtschaftsstudium in Hohenheim, das er jedoch 1894 durch den frühen Tod seiner Eltern aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen wieder aufgeben musste. Es folgte eine zehnjährige Tätigkeit als Verwalter mehrerer Gutsbetriebe in Bayern und in Norddeutschland. Von 1904 bis zu seiner Pensionierung im Jahre 1945 war er Oberverwalter auf dem Schlossgut Steinach bei Straubing. Gemeinsam mit seinem Gutsherrn, dem Geheimen Landesökonomierat Dr. Carl August von Schmieder, bewirtschaftete er dieses Gut nach den Grundsätzen modernster Technik und machte es zu einem vielbesuchten landwirtschaftlichen Musterbetrieb.

Am 19. Oktober 1919 weilte Carl Albert Weber, Abteilungsleiter der Moor-Versuchsstation in Bremen, auf dem Schlossgut Steinach. In einem abendlichen Gespräch mit Niggl beklagte er den schlechten Zustand der Wiesen und Weiden in Deutschland. Er bat Niggl, sich für die Gründung eines Vereins einzusetzen, dessen primäre Aufgabe es sein sollte, die Wiesen- und Weidewirte mit besseren Bewirtschaftungsmaßnahmen vertraut zu machen. Niggl erklärte sich dazu bereit, die entsprechenden Schritte einzuleiten. Damit wurde das Schlossgut Steinach zur Geburtsstätte der deutschen Grünlandbewegung. An diesem Abend wurde auch das Wort “Grünland” geprägt, als Sammelbegriff für alles grünende Land, das der Futterwirtschaft dient.

Bereits am 19. November 1919 wurde auf Initiative Niggls und mit tatkräftiger Unterstützung seines Gutsherrn C. A. von Schmieder in Straubing der “Verein zur Förderung der Grünlandwirtschaft in Bayern” gegründet. In den folgenden Jahren entstanden Grünlandvereine in fast allen deutschen Ländern. An der Gründung, Leitung und Förderung vieler dieser Vereine war Niggl maßgebend beteiligt. 1922 wurde der Deutsche Grünlandbund gegründet. Die entstehende Grünlandbewegung in Deutschland gab auch der Forschung auf dem Gebiete der Wiesen- und Weidewirtschaft neue Impulse. Das auf dem Schlossgut Steinach1931 unter der Leitung von Friedrich König eingerichtete Lehr- und Forschungsinstitut der “Studiengesellschaft zur Förderung der Grünlandwirtschaft” wurde Vorbild für die Gründung ähnlich konzipierter Grünland-Versuchstationen wholesale youth football uniforms.

Niggl, der später oft als “Grünland-Vater” bezeichnet wurde, erwarb sich auch durch mehrere Fachbücher und durch zahlreiche Beiträge in praxisorientierten Publikationsorganen hohes Ansehen sowohl bei den Wiesen- und Weidewirten, als auch bei den Agrarwissenschaftlern. Als wertvolle Quelle für die Wissenschaftsgeschichte des Landbaus gilt sein 1953 erschienenes Buch “Die Geschichte der deutschen Grünlandbewegung 1914-1945 “, eine informative Dokumentation mit Kurzbiographien von Personen der deutschen Grünlandbewegung und Details über bedeutende Grünlandtagungen. Die dort veröffentlichte Liste seiner eigenen Publikationen umfasst 177 Einzeltitel.

Für seine Verdienste um die deutsche Grünlandbewegung wurden Niggl hohe Ehrungen zuteil: