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Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) is a public research institution located in Mumbai, India that is dedicated to basic research in mathematics and the sciences. It is a Deemed University and works under the umbrella of the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India. It is located at Navy Nagar, Colaba, Mumbai, with an affiliated campus in Serilingampally near Hyderabad. TIFR conducts research primarily in the natural sciences, mathematics, the biological sciences and theoretical computer science and is considered to be one among India’s outstanding research centres. TIFR has a graduate programme leading to a PhD in all the major fields of study. TIFR is rated with an “A” grade, as determined by India’s Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD). It is the only one among 4 in the state of Maharashtra, the other 3 being the centrally funded Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) and the Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE).

In 1944, Homi J. Bhabha, known for his role in the development of the Indian atomic energy programme, wrote to the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust requesting financial assistance to set up a scientific research institute. With support from J.R.D. Tata, then chairman of the Tata Group, TIFR was founded on 1 June 1945, and Homi Bhabha was appointed its first director. The institute initially operated within the campus of the Indian Institute of Science, Banglore before relocating to Mumbai later that year. TIFR’s new campus in Colaba was designed by Chicago-based architect Helmuth Bartsch and was inaugurated by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 15 January 1962.

Shortly after Indian Independence, in 1949, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) designated TIFR to be the centre for all large-scale projects in nuclear research. The first theoretical physics group was set up by Bhabha’s students B.M. Udgaonkar and K soccer designs for t shirts.S. Singhvi. In December 1950, Bhabha organised an international conference at TIFR on elementary particle physics. Several world-renowned scientists attended the conference, including Rudolf Peierls, Léon Rosenfeld, William Fowler as well as Meghnad Saha, Vikram Sarabhai and others providing expertise from India. In the 1950s, TIFR gained prominence in the field of cosmic ray physics, with the setting up of research facilities in Ooty and in the Kolar gold mines.

In 1957, India’s first digital computer, TIFRAC was built in TIFR. Acting on the suggestions of British physiologist Archibald Hill, Bhabha invited Obaid Siddiqi to set up a research group in molecular biology reusable water bottle companies. This ultimately resulted in the establishment of the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Bangalore twenty years later. In 1970, TIFR started research in radio astronomy with the setting up of the Ooty Radio Telescope. Encouraged by the success of ORT, Govind Swarup persuaded J. R. D. Tata to help set up the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope near Pune, India

TIFR attained the official deemed university status in June 2002. To meet the ever-growing demand of space needed for research labs and accommodation institute is coming up with a new campus at Hyderabad.

Research at TIFR is distributed across three schools, working over the mathematical sciences, natural sciences, technology and computer science.

Since its birth in the 1950s, several brilliant contributions to mathematics have come from TIFR School of Mathematics. Notable contributions from TIFR mathematicians include Raghavan Narasimhan’s proof of the embedding of open Riemann surfaces in



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[citation needed] Over the years has expanded to encompass various other branches of modern biology. The department has fourteen labs covering various aspects of modern molecular and cell biology.

TIFR has a Linear particle accelerator and a Pelletron capable of accelerating particles to moderate energies for studying heavy ion atomic interactions and a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Facility to study complex molecules housed in campus in addition to several other facilities. The Institute’s Dental Section has been actively involved in investigations pertaining to carcinogenic effects of tobacco. In addition to in campus facilities the institute has several field stations and research facilities in different parts of the country. A Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope, the largest of its kind in the world, is operational at Khodad near Narayangaon, north of Pune and a large equatorially mounted cylindrical radio telescope and a high energy cosmic ray laboratory are operational at Udhagamandalam in Tamil Nadu. High Energy Cosmic ray and Gamma Ray laboratories are operated from Pachamarhi in Madhya Pradesh. TIFR runs a National Balloon Facility in Hyderabad which is among the best in the world and has the geographical advantage of being close to the geomagnetic equator. At Gauribidanur, TIFR scientists have built an extremely sensitive balance to study the difference between gravitational and inertial mass.

In addition to the research laboratories, the facilities of TIFR include:

TIFR is renowned for two canteens called the West and the East Canteen. The West Canteen makes western continental food and the east canteen prepares Indian food. Another canteen located in the housing complex – the Jagdish Canteen – is sublet to a private contractor.

TIFR also includes institutes outside its main campus in Colaba and Mumbai:

The Visiting Students Research Programme (VSRP) is a summer programme conducted annually during the summer season by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. VSRP is offered in the subjects Physics and Astronomy, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology and Computer Science.


K.E. on the Track

Kevin Erondu, professionally known as K.E. on the Track, or simply K.E., is an American record producer, businessman and investor He has produced for many major artists such as Nicki Minaj, DJ Khaled, Fast Life Yungstaz, Future, Gucci Mane, Rick Ross, Chief Keef, Ace Hood, Roscoe Dash, Tamar Braxton, Lecrae and Kid Ink. Besides music, K.E. is also an active businessman and investor. His business and investment ventures include a car rental company, a shoe store and various stock market investments.

K.E.’s breakthrough came in 2009, when he produced the single “Swag Surfin” by rap group Fast Life Yungstaz. The song received airplay and charted at No. 62 on the Billboard Hot 100. Following the success of the record, he met a lot of important people in the industry and went on to work with other major artists.

In 2010, he worked on rapper Roscoe Dash’s debut album Ready Set Go!, where he produced 5 of the 9 songs, including both singles. “All the Way Turnt Up” was released in January 2010 and peaked at No. 46 on the Billboard Hot 100 reusable water bottle companies. It spawned multiple remixes by artists such as Ludacris, Fabolous and MGK. K.E. also co-wrote and produced the second single “Show Out”, released in August the same year.

In 2011, he produced the song “You the Boss” by Rick Ross and Nicki Minaj, which was originally released as the first single from Ross’ fifth studio album God Forgives, I Don’t. Eventually the track was taken off the final tracklist, even though it peaked at No. 62 on the Billboard Hot 100. It was also placed at No. 33 and No. 37 respectively on the Billboard Year-end charts for Hot Rap Songs and Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs.

In 2012, K.E. worked with Future on his debut album Pluto. K.E. produced the song “Magic,” which appeared on Future’s 2011 mixtape True Story and its remix with rapper T.I., which was featured on the album. “Magic” was released as the second single from Pluto in January 2012 and peaked at No. 69 on the Billboard Hot 100. Later in 2012, K.E. produced the track “I’m So Blessed” (featuring Big Sean, Wiz Khalifa, Ace Hood and T-Pain) from DJ Khaled’s sixth studio album Kiss the Ring infant soccer socks. After Khaled heard K.E.’s production on “You the Boss,” he contacted him to get some beats and created the song, which made the cut for the album.

As a lead artist, K.E. has released a number of instrumental mixtapes in the Hip hop, trap and EDM genres, such as The Art of Trap, EDM Nation 1 & 2 and the Best Beats in the World series.

In November 2012, K.E. stated he was working on Future’s second album, as well as tracks with Young Jeezy, Eminem, French Montana and Kirko Bangz. In December 2013, the lead single from Rick Ross’ Mastermind “The Devil Is A Lie” was released crediting K.E. as the song’s producer. In Jan. 2014 K.E. decided to become an artist and released singles with artist Kevin Gates, Shy Glizzy, Tracy-T and more. He also produced artist Mila J’s lead single entitled ‘ Pain In My Heart. In December 2014, K.E. produced 3 singles on rapper Shy Glizzy’s mixtape entitled ” LAW 3 “

In Jan, 2015 K.E. created Beat Mechanics Entertainment to sign artist and producers.

Fast Life Yungstaz – Jamboree

Lil Wayne – No Ceilings

J.REU – The Huggz -N- Kissez Mixtape

Roscoe Dash – Ready Set Go!

Nicki Minaj – non-album single

Ace Hood – The Statement

Chris Brown

Future – True Story

Future – Streetz Calling

Ace Hood – The Statement 2

Tory Lanez ft. Justin Bieber

Lil Twist

Chris Brown – Future: The Prequel

Chris Brown – non-album single

Future – Astronaut Status

Gucci Mane – Trap Back

Cash Out – It’s My Time

Future– Pluto

Travis Porter – From Day 1

Rick Ross – God Forgives, I Don’t

DJ Khaled – Kiss the Ring

Bobby V – Dusk Till Dawn

Chief Keef – Finally Rich

2 Chainz ft. Waka Flocka

Young Thug – 1017 Thug

Future & Freeband Gang – Black Woodstock: The Soundtrack

Robb Bank$ – Tha City

SD – Life of a Savage 3

Kirko Bangz – Progression 3

Kirko Bangz ft. Yo Gotti

Hustle Gang

Tamar Braxton – Love and War

Young Dolph


Doe B – Baby Jesus

Trinidad James

Rich Homie Quan – I Promised I Will Never Going In

Cash Out

Myko Montana

I.Z. aka IDzeroNo


DJ Infamous

Medj Money

Gorilla Zoe – Recovery

Lightshow – Life Sentence 2

Rocko – Lingo 4 Dummys

Royal Ezenwa – Misfit: Vol. 1

Young Dolph – Cross Country Trappin

Shy Glizzy – Law 3

1 i love football shirts. Funeral 2. Handcuffs 3. Legend

Mila J Made in LA

Pain In My Heart ( single )

K.E. On The Track

Rich The Kid

Kid Ink “Summer in the Winter”

G-Eazy “When It’s Dark Out”

Trey Songz

Fetty Wap

O.T. Genasis


Rich Homie Quan

Wiz Khalifa


Gucci Mane

Rich Homie Quan

Rich The Kid

Chevy Woods

Project Pat


Filtre de Tchebychev

Les filtres de Tchebychev sont un type de filtre caractérisé par l’acceptation d’une ondulation, ou bien en bande passante ou bien en bande atténuée. Dans le premier cas necklaces for women, on parle de filtres de Tchebychev de type 1 ou directs, dans le second, de filtres de Tchebychev de type 2 ou inverses. Les filtres qui présentent une ondulation à la fois en bande passante et en bande atténuée sont appelés filtres elliptiques.

Les filtres de Tchebychev se nomment ainsi en l’honneur du mathématicien russe Pafnouti Tchebychev car les caractéristiques mathématiques de ces filtres sont dérivées des polynômes de Tchebychev.

Le filtre de Tchebychev de type 1 troque, contre une meilleure sélectivité, la monotonie en bande passante du Filtre de Butterworth ; la courbe de réponse en bande passante présente un certain nombre d’ondulations. La valeur maximale de ces ondulations est un paramètre de conception du filtre. Plus elle est importante, à ordre constant, plus le filtre est sélectif (sa pente est plus raide hors bande passante).

Le filtre de Tchebychev de type 1 est un filtre du type « tout pôle », ce qui signifie qu’il est réalisable par un procédé classique de synthèse en échelle. Seuls les filtres d’ordre impair possèdent une impédance d’entrée et de sortie égale, les filtres d’ordre pair ayant une impédance de sortie inférieure à l’impédance d’entrée.

Ce filtre est assez largement utilisé là où l’ondulation ne pose pas de problèmes. Matthaei [1] a donné des formules récursives simples qui permettent de calculer facilement la valeur des composants constituant ce filtre.

Le filtre de Tchebychev de type 2, également connu sous le nom de Tchebychev inverse, présente une atténuation monotone en bande passante, comme le filtre de Butterworth, mais son comportement en bande atténuée est différent : la courbe de réponse alterne entre une série de maxima, dont la valeur est spécifiée lors de la conception du filtre, et de points où l’atténuation est totale (pôles). Voir par exemple ci-contre la réponse d’un filtre de type 2 passe-bas conçu pour environ 70 dB d’atténuation hors-bande.

Pour les ordres impairs, l’atténuation devient infinie lorsque la fréquence s’écarte indéfiniment (au sens logarithmique) de la fréquence de coupure. En revanche, pour les ordres pairs, l’atténuation tend vers la valeur limite du gabarit. Cette particularité rend la synthèse des filtres de type 2 d’ordre pair impossible si l’on se limite à des capacités et des inductances : il faut au moins un transformateur et/ou un amplificateur reusable water bottle companies.

En raison des pôles présents à des fréquences finies, le filtre de type 2 présente une topologie de base qui alterne des composants simples avec des circuits LC série ou parallèle retro football shirt. À l’inverse du type 1, il n’est donc pas synthétisable par une procédure en échelle.

Ce filtre est assez peu utilisé, en raison de sa (relative) méconnaissance, de la nécessité de régler les circuits LC précisément, et d’une certaine difficulté à calculer la valeur des composants. Il a cependant des caractéristiques meilleures que le type 1 en bande passante, notamment l’absence d’ondulation et un meilleur temps de propagation de groupe, ce qui signifie moins de distorsion des signaux complexes.