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Ioan Gruffudd

Ioan Gruffudd (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈjo.an ˈɡrɪfɪð] ( listen); born 6 October 1973) is a Welsh actor.

Having trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, he started off in Welsh language film productions, then came to the public’s attention as Fifth Officer Harold Lowe in the film Titanic (1997), and as Lt John Beales in Black Hawk Down (2001). He is also known in the UK for playing the title role in Horatio Hornblower (1998–2003). In 2017, he played Andrew Earlham in the suspense six-part miniseries Liar, airing on ITV in the UK and SundanceTV in the US.

In June 2012, he filmed Mariah Mundi and the Midas Box throughout the south-west of England, playing the role of “Charles Mundi”; the film was released in 2014. Other film roles include Lancelot in King Arthur (2004), Mister Fantastic (Reed Richards) in Fantastic 4 (2005) and its sequel Fantastic 4: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007), and British anti-slavery abolitionist William Wilberforce in Amazing Grace (2006). He played Tony Blair in W. (2008). On television he has played Andrew Martin in Ringer, and Dr. Henry Morgan on the ABC drama, Forever. He was cast in the Lifetime Network series, UnReal in April 2016.

Gruffudd was born on 6 October 1973 in Llwydcoed, Aberdare, Wales, the eldest of three siblings. Gruffudd’s parents, Peter and Gillian (née James) Gruffudd, were both teachers.

His father was headmaster at two Welsh comprehensive schools in South Wales, first at Ysgol Gyfun Llanhari (in Llanharry, Rhondda Cynon Taf) then later at Ysgol Gyfun Rhydfelen (in Rhydfelin). He has a brother, Alun, two years younger, and a sister, Siwan, who is seven years his junior. The Gruffudd siblings were raised in a Protestant non-conformist household.

The Welsh name “Ioan”, pronounced “Yo-Ann”, is an equivalent of “John”, and “Gruffudd” corresponds to the anglicised “Griffith”.

During his childhood, his family moved to Cardiff. Gruffudd attended Ysgol Gynradd Gymraeg Aberdar (Ynyslwyd; now located in Cwmdare), Ysgol Gymraeg Melin Gruffydd (in Whitchurch, Cardiff), and Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Glantaf (in Llandaff).

He was an accomplished oboist in his teens, achieving a Grade 8 level in the ABRSM music examinations and playing in the South Glamorgan Youth Orchestra for several years, but gave it up once acting took up most of his time. He won prizes for his high baritone singing while at school, including one at the National Eisteddfod. He has said, “As a Welshman, I grew up in a culture of singing and performing with music, and I think it was through this performing that I got my confidence as an actor.”

Gruffudd’s parents are committed Christians, and in his early 20s he was a member of the London Church of Christ, but his mother later came to London to “sort [his] head out”. In June 2007, he said that he “wouldn’t describe myself as a deeply religious man”.

Gruffudd started his acting career at the age of 13 in a Welsh television film, Austin (1986), and later moved on to the Welsh language soap opera Pobol y Cwm (People of the Valley) from 1987 to 1994. He also played football with the Pobol y Cwm football team Cwmderi FC alongside co-stars Hywel Emrys, Gwyn Elfyn and Ieuan Rhys. During this time, he was also active on stage, in school performances, and in the 1991 Urdd Eisteddfod production of Cwlwm.

In 1992 running wrist pouch, aged 18, he began attending the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in London. However, he was only given small parts in the Academy’s productions, and feeling isolated and directionless, almost dropped out several times. However, in 1995 in his final year, he was cast in Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler as George (Jörgen) Tesman lime squeezer, the husband of Hedda, the lead character. This performance led to him being offered the lead role in the 1996 TV remake of Poldark.

After playing Oscar Wilde’s lover John Gray in 1997’s Wilde he took his first role as Fifth Officer Harold Lowe in the blockbuster film Titanic. He later landed the role of Horatio Hornblower in Hornblower, the Meridian production of the C. S. Forester novels (1998–2003), shown on ITV1 and A&E. He has said: “It was quite something for an unknown actor to get the lead. So I will always be grateful to Hornblower. … I would love to play this character through every stage of his life. I think it would be unique to have an actor playing him from the very early days as a midshipman, through till he’s an Admiral. So, I would love to play this character till he perishes.”

His television work includes playing the character Pip in the BBC TV production of Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations (1999), Lt. John Feeley in BBC One’s Warriors (1999) and architect Philip Bosinney in ITV’s adaptation of The Forsyte Saga (2002). He has starred in the films 102 Dalmatians (2000), Black Hawk Down (2001) and King Arthur (2004).

In 2007, he starred in the historical drama Amazing Grace as William Wilberforce, the British abolitionist, receiving critical acclaim for the role. Gruffudd has also portrayed characters of both Marvel Comics and DC Comics, having appeared as Mister Fantastic (Reed Richards) in Marvel’s Fantastic Four (2005) and Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007), and provided the voice of Mister Miracle in DC’s Justice League Unlimited (2004–06).

In 2008, he appeared in the Julia Roberts-Ryan Reynolds film, Fireflies in the Garden. In 2008, he also appeared in The Secret of Moonacre. In 2009, he starred alongside Josh Brolin in W., a biopic about the life of US President George W Bush, in which Gruffudd played Tony Blair. In 2011, he played the financier of a cave dive in Sanctum.

Gruffudd débuted his new male lead of Dr Andrew Earlham, a respected surgeon and widowed father of a teenage son, on 11 September 2017, in ITV’s new 6-part thriller miniseries, Liar. Dr Earlham’s world—personally and professionally—is torn asunder when his son’s schoolteacher, Laura Neilson (Joanne Froggatt) accuses him of raping her after their first date, the details of which she cannot remember. Liar also began airing in the US on SundanceTV on 25 September 2017.

Apart from television and film work, he starred in the music video of Westlife’s version of “Uptown Girl” (2001) alongside Claudia Schiffer. On 7 July 2007 he was a presenter at the UK leg of Live Earth at Wembley Stadium, London.

Gruffudd is a native Welsh speaker. He was inducted into the Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain (the Bardic Order of Great Britain) at the highest rank of druid in the National Eisteddfod at Meifod, mid-Wales, on 4 August 2003, with the bardic name “Ioan”.

In July 2008 he featured in a promotional trailer in Welsh for BBC Wales, alongside fellow Welshmen Matthew Rhys and Gethin Jones, publicising BBC coverage of the 2008 National Eisteddfod of Wales in Cardiff. In early 2014, Gruffudd was among the stars of Wales in a short film from the BBC to mark the centenary of the birth of Welsh poet Dylan Thomas.

Gruffudd lives with his wife, actress Alice Evans, in Los Angeles. The couple met during the production of 102 Dalmatians, while she was engaged and living with Olivier Picasso (a grandson of Pablo Picasso), and married on 14 September 2007 in Mexico. One of Gruffudd’s best men and speechmakers at the wedding was fellow Welsh actor Matthew Rhys, his long-time friend and former flatmate of eight years. Both are patrons of Trust PA, a UK spinal injuries charity.

On 20 April 2009, Gruffudd and Evans announced that they were expecting their first child together. The couple have two daughters, Ella Betsi Janet (born on September 6, 2009) and Elsie Marigold (born on September 6, 2013).

Gruffudd enjoys being in Los Angeles because “it’s the easiest place in the world to drive, and it’s a real pleasure to do that in my black Jag XK8. I’ve gone all out.” Gruffudd has also said that “There’s a physicality and confidence to Americans; they’re very present. That’s something I enjoy being around because it rubs off on you. Although an actor friend of mine visited recently and said, ‘It’s no wonder they write such terrible scripts these days, there’s no pain! Everything’s so nice you can’t be bothered’.”

Some information in this table was obtained from . Hamilton Hodell Talent Management. Archived from on 16 December 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2008. 

Chilca (Pueblo 1)

Chilca, Pueblo 1, es un yacimiento arqueológico situado cerca de la localidad del mismo nombre, en el distrito de Chilca de la provincia de Cañete del departamento de Lima, en el Perú. Fue descubierto por el arqueólogo suizo Frédéric Engel en 1963, quien desenterró los vestigios de una aldea del periodo arcaico temprano, etapa conocida también como precerámico o de los horticultores seminómades. Se trata de restos de chozas semisubterráneas de planta circular, así como entierros humanos e indicios de actividades económicas como la pesca, la recolección y la horticultura. Su antigüedad ha sido calculada en 3750 a. C. Se le conoce también como Pueblo 1, para distinguirlo de otros asentamientos precerámicos de la región fingersave goalie gloves, como el de Cerro Paloma.

Chilca se halla a 65 km al sur de Lima y a 3 km del Océano Pacífico, en medio de una pampa que la sequedad y el viento ha convertido en terral. No obstante, Frédéric Engel encontró allí vestigios de una aldea de primitivos habitantes del período arcaico o precerámico, que denominó Pueblo 1 y que cubre una superficie aproximada de 2 hectáreas.

La capa más profunda dio una antigüedad de 5.700 ± 136 años, que calibrada, ha sido fijada en el 3.750 a.C., es decir, hace 6.000 años. La aldea muestra indicios de haber sido ocupada permanentemente durante 1.200 años, hasta el 2.300 a.C., cuando fue abandonada, por razones que permanecen en el misterio pack running.

Engel desenterró los restos de chozas de base circular, hechas a base de cañas y amarradas con sogas de junco. Estas chozas eran en realidad simples cobertizos que rodeaban unos hoyos abiertos en el suelo, de unos 40 cm de profundidad, y de un diámetro de 2.5 m aproximadamente. No se ha podido determinar cuál era la forma exacta de la chozas pues no se ha encontrado un techo completo; pudieron ser de forma cónica o plana.

Esta aldea, que albergaba 10 a 12 familias (aproximadamente 60 personas), era a la vez un lugar de entierros o sepulturas. Se hallaron cuerpos sepultados bajo el suelo de las viviendas. Es decir, los muertos eran enterrados en la misma choza que habitaron y al parecer estas eran abandonadas luego, o tal vez seguían siendo habitadas running wrist pouch. Los entierros pueden ser aislados, de uno o dos cuerpos, o bien múltiples, de hasta ocho individuos bajo una choza. Algunos cuerpos estaban clavados en el suelo con una estaca (cuerpos estacados). Asimismo, existe otro tipo de entierro al que se ha denominado el “Cementerio”, que se halla fuera de la zona habitacional, al oeste.

Los cadáveres están envueltos con esteras de junco y amarrados con soguillas, conformando verdaderos fardos. Los cuerpos están muy mal conservados. En la cabeza llevan una bolsa de tejido anillado. Al lado aparecen una serie de enseres, tejidos y collares. Los cadáveres de bebés aparecen acomodados dentro de calabazas.

El aspecto físico del hombre de Chilca era de 1.70 m. de estatura, frente ancha, pómulos poco pronunciados, pecho ancho y cráneo dolicocéfalo.

Los hombres de Chilca cultivaban camotes, pallares, zapallos y calabazas, es decir, eran horticultores. Se ha determinado que dichas especies fueron efectivamente cultivadas y no simplemente recolectadas. Debieron aprovechar los aluviones o huaicos con tierra fertilizada para desarrollar esta actividad. No conocieron el algodón.

Otra de sus actividades básicas era la pesca, para lo cual usaban anzuelos de espina de cactus, aunque no redes de pesca; esto último los diferencia llamativamente de los hombres de Paracas refillable plastic water bottles, otro grupo importante del precerámico de la costa peruana. Aprovechaban diversas especies, como la corvina. También eran recolectores de mariscos (choros, almejas y chanques) y cazadores de lobos marinos; para esto último usaban unas estacas afilaadas a la manera de arpones.

También continuaron practicando ancestrales actividades como la caza de venados y guanacos que periódicamente bajaban de la sierra a las lomas costeras.

Tejían a mano algunas fibras vegetales, pero todavía de manera muy rudimentaria. En este aspecto se han determinado dos técnicas: el entrelazado y el anillado.

Finalmente, es de destacar que el perro ya aparece en esta aldea de chilcanos como compañero eficaz del hombre.