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Atavismus

Ein Atavismus (von lateinisch atavus ‚Urahn‘), veraltet auch Rückschlag, ist das Wiederauftreten von anatomischen Merkmalen bei einem Lebewesen water bottle best, die bei entfernteren stammesgeschichtlichen Vorfahren ausgebildet waren, bei den unmittelbaren Vorfahren jedoch reduziert wurden water bottle free, da sie für die gegenwärtige Entwicklungsstufe keinerlei Funktion mehr besitzen. Häufig werden Atavismen daher als Missbildung wahrgenommen. Sie zählen, ebenso wie die Rudimente, zu den klassischen Evolutionsbelegen und können bei allen Lebewesen gleichermaßen auftreten.

In einem erweiterten Sinne wird der Begriff auch in der Ethologie für entwicklungsbiologisch ursprüngliche Verhaltensweisen gemeinsamer evolutionärer Vorfahren angewandt. Da es sich um genetisch fixierte Verhaltensweisen handelt, sind ethologische Atavismen zwingend angeboren, nie erlernt.

Weniger bekannt sind Atavismen bei Pflanzen, doch wurden solche bereits im 19. Jahrhundert erforscht. Dazu gehören unter anderem die Pelorienbildung bei Blütenpflanzen, Eschen mit nur ein- oder dreifach gegliederten Blättern (Einblattesche) sowie Kakteen mit auftretenden Blättern.

Grundsätzlich sollten atavistische Formen auch bei Bakterien, Pilzen und Einzellern auftreten. Allerdings sind sie aufgrund der starken Variabilität dieser Lebewesen und teilweise nicht vollständig geklärter Abstammungsverhältnisse schwieriger eindeutig zu identifizieren und von Neubildungen zu unterscheiden.

Die Bildung von Atavismen kann folgende Ursachen haben:

Bei Verhaltensatavismen handelt es sich um angeborene Verhaltensweisen, die im Verlauf der Stammesgeschichte abgelegt wurden. Beispielsweise bauen einzelne Haussperlinge gelegentlich ihre Nester nicht wie üblich, sondern errichten stattdessen Kugelnester, wie sie für ursprüngliche Webervögel charakteristisch sind. Diese atavistischen Kugelnester entstehen nicht durch Nachahmung eines Vorbildes, sondern die Formgebung seines Nistplatzes ist angeboren, der Vogel handelt also rein instinktgesteuert.

Auch das Fight-or-flight-Syndrom des Menschen kann als Verhaltensatavismus gelten, denn dabei treten seine artspezifischen kognitiven und kommunikativen Fähigkeiten in den Hintergrund zugunsten instinktgesteuerter häufig irrationaler Reaktionen.

Illustrationen von Atavismus beim Menschen

Illustrationen von Atavismus bei Tieren

Illustrationen von Atavismus bei Pflanzen

Walton Street–Church Street Historic District

The Walton Street–Church Street Historic District in Baconton, Georgia is a 66-acre (27 ha) historic district that was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983 running belt hydration. The listing included 17 contributing buildings.

It includes 15 houses constructed between 1900 and the 1930s, in styles including late Victorian Eclectic the lemon squeeze hike, Neo-classical

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, and Georgian styles, plus some influence of the Prairie School and the Craftsman movements. Most are wood frame buildings; some have brick veneer. Thomas Jefferson Glausier, a builder, may be associated with some of the buildings.

It includes a turn-of-the-20th-century historic Methodist church, prominent on the corner of Walton Street and Church Street, and a brick school.

The east side of Baconton was developed on land formerly owned by George W. Jackson. The George W. Jackson House stands at the former end of Walton Street water bottle free, outside the district, and is separately listed on the National Register.

The district was one of three in Baconton listed on the National Register at the same time as the Jackson house, as part of a review of all historic resources in Baconton.

Reza Najie

Reza Najie

Reza Najie (en persan: رضا ناجی) ou Mohammad Amir Najie né le 26 décembre 1942 à Tabriz, est un acteur iranien.

Najie a commencé sa carrière au théâtre lorsqu’il était encore un adolescent. Durant ses services militaires, il a poursuivi sa carrière d’acteur. Son premier film au cinéma date de 1997 dans Les Enfants du ciel, qui prouve son talent exceptionnel. Pour le rôle du père d’Ali, le réalisateur Majid Majidi cherchait un acteur avec un accent Azéri, et Najie a été choisi avec soin parmi un groupe de 2,500 acteurs testés pour le rôle

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. Depuis il a joué dans plusieurs films. Parmi ses performances importantes water bottle free, son interprétation dans Les chants de moineaux, de Majid Majidi, pour lequel Najie a gagné l’Ours d’argent au Festival du film de Berlin, et le prix du meilleur acteur en 2008 au Asia Pacific Screen Awards.

Nordland Musikkfestuke

Nordland Musikkfestuke er en årlig musikkfestival og et festspill som har blitt arrangert i Bodø og omegn i uke 32 (rundt olsok 29. juli) siden 1980. Festivalen kombinerer natur og kultur og har avholdt arrangementer på i alt 15 arenaer og scener, blant annet i Bodø kulturhus, Bodø domkirke, Bodin kirke, Galleri Bodøgaard og Bodø Kunstforening og utendørskonserter på Keiservarden og Nyholms Skandse. En musikkapp er lansert under navnet Musikalske Utsikter for å nyte artister fra Bodø ved besøk på utvalgte steder i Bodø.

André Wallann Larsen er Musikkfestukas direktør.

Nordland Musikkfestuke inviterer tar i bruk nasjonale og regionale ressurser med innslag av forskjellige sjangre. Hovedvekten ligger på egenproduksjon innenfor klassisk musikk, kirkemusikk og rytmisk musikk water bottle free. Andre kunstuttrykk er teater, billedkunst, dans og film. Det er også mulig for aspirerende talenter å vise seg fram ved å holde konserter.

I mars 2013 ble det for første gang arrangert en egen vinterfestival ved navn Nordland Musikkfestuke Vinter med hovedfokus på klassisk musikk. Vinterfestivalen varte i tre dager og var et samarbeid med konferansen Arctic Dialogue, som ble arrangert av Nordområdesenteret ved Universitetet i Nordland (UiN).

Kronprins Haakon er festivalens høye beskytter goalkeeper gloves store.

Nordland Musikkfestuke ble etablert i Bodø i 1980. Festivalen ble etablert av seks personer, fjorten kulturorganisasjoner, seks kommuner i Salten og fylkeskommunen. Festivalen fikk navnet Olsokdagene i Bodø, og startet som en endags olsokfeiring. Festivalen vokste raskt og i 1989 ble den organisert som en stiftelse og tok navnet Nordland Musikkfestuke.

Tidligere har Nordland Musikkfestuke fått kritikk[av hvem?] for å være anonym i media, men de siste årene[når?] har mediedekningen økt kraftig.

En undersøkelse gjennomført av studenter ved UiN høsten 2013, der 129 personer deltok, viser at 84 % av deltakerne i undersøkelsen har hørt om NMFu før. Videre viser undersøkelsen at 40 % av de spurte har et godt inntrykk av festivalen, mens flesteparten (47 %), fortsatt ikke har dannet seg et inntrykk. Bare 13 % hadde et dårlig inntrykk. 43 % av de spurte hadde deltatt på festivalen, resten hadde dannet seg et inntrykk på grunnlag av medieomtale.

Nordland Musikkfestuke har ca. 100 frivillige hvert år. Arbeidsoppgavene til de frivillige er for eksempel vakthold, billettsalg, servering, rigging og å være artistvertskap.

Nordland Musikkfestuke har hatt en lang rekke festivaldeltakere, både av utøvere, ensembler og komponister:

Årets Nordlandsprofil bestemmes av Nordland Musikkfestuka, og flere av artistene over har hatt denne tittelen. Flere av disse har hatt tittelen årets Nordlandsprofil. I 2005 var den utpekte Bodø Domkirkes ungdomskor.

Nordland Musikkfestuke har de siste årene hatt relativt stabile publikumstall:

2014

Nordland Musikkfestuke har en rekke samarbeidspartnere:

Nordland Musikkfestuke mottar støtte fra Norsk kulturråd, Nordland fylkeskommune og Bodø kommune.

State of the Union

The State of the Union address is a speech presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, typically delivered annually. The address not only reports on the condition of the nation but also allows the President to outline his legislative agenda (for which he needs the cooperation of Congress) and national priorities. The address fulfills rules in Article II, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution, requiring the President to periodically give Congress information on the “state of the union” and recommend any measures that he believes are necessary and expedient. During most of the country’s first century, the President primarily only submitted a written report to Congress. With the advent of radio and television, the address is now broadcast live across the country on most networks.

The practice arises from a command given to the president in the Constitution of the United States:

He shall from time to time give to Congress information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.

Although the language of this Section of the Constitution is not specific, by tradition, the President makes this report annually in late January or early February. Between 1934 and 2013 the date has been as early as January 3, and as late as February 12.

While not required to deliver a speech, every president since Woodrow Wilson, with the notable exception of Herbert Hoover, has made at least one State of the Union report as a speech delivered before a joint session of Congress. Before that time, most presidents delivered the State of the Union as a written report.

Since Franklin Roosevelt, the State of the Union is given typically each January before a joint session of the United States Congress and is held in the House of Representatives chamber of the United States Capitol. When a presidential inauguration occurs in January, the date may be delayed until February.

What began as a communication between president and Congress has become a communication between the president and the people of the United States. Since the advent of radio, and then television, the speech has been broadcast live on most networks, preempting scheduled programming. To reach the largest audience, the speech, once given during the day, is now typically given in the evening, after 9pm ET (UTC-5).

Also, in recent decades, newly inaugurated presidents have chosen to deliver speeches to joint sessions of Congress in the early months of their presidencies, but have not officially considered them State of the Union addresses.

George Washington delivered the first regular annual message before a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1790, in New York City, then the provisional U.S. capital. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson discontinued the practice of delivering the address in person, regarding it as too monarchical (similar to the Speech from the Throne). Instead, the address was written and then sent to Congress to be read by a clerk until 1913 when Woodrow Wilson re-established the practice despite some initial controversy stainless steel water bottles safe. However, there have been exceptions to this rule. Presidents during the latter half of the 20th century have sent written State of the Union addresses. The last President to do this was Jimmy Carter in 1981.

For many years, the speech was referred to as “the President’s Annual Message to Congress”. The actual term “State of the Union” first emerged in 1934 when Franklin D. Roosevelt used the phrase, becoming its generally accepted name since 1947.

Prior to 1934, the annual message was delivered at the end of the calendar year, in December. The ratification of the 20th Amendment on January 23, 1933 changed the opening of Congress from early March to early January, affecting the delivery of the annual message. Since 1934, the message or address has been delivered to Congress in January or February.

The Twentieth Amendment also established January 20 as the beginning of the presidential term. In years when a new president is inaugurated, the outgoing president may deliver a final State of the Union message, but none has done so since Jimmy Carter sent a written message in 1981. In 1953 and 1961, Congress received both a written State of the Union message from the outgoing president and a separate State of the Union speech by the incoming president. Since 1989, in recognition that the responsibility of reporting the State of the Union formally belongs to the president who held office during the past year, newly inaugurated Presidents have not officially called their first speech before Congress a “State of the Union” message.

In 1936, President Roosevelt set a precedent when he delivered the address at night. Only once before—when Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to order the U.S. into World War I—had a sitting president addressed Congress at night.

Calvin Coolidge’s 1923 speech was the first to be broadcast on radio. Harry S. Truman’s 1947 address was the first to be broadcast on television. Lyndon B. Johnson’s address in 1965 was the first delivered in the evening.[clarification needed] Three years later, in 1968, television networks in the United States, for the first time, imposed no time limit for their coverage of a State of the Union address. Delivered by Lyndon B. Johnson, this address was followed by extensive televised commentary by, among others, Daniel Patrick Moynihan and Milton Friedman. Ronald Reagan’s 1986 State of the Union Address is the only one to have been postponed. He had planned to deliver it on January 28, 1986 but postponed it for a week after learning of the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster and instead addressed the nation on the day’s events. Bill Clinton’s 1997 address was the first broadcast available live on the World Wide Web. President George W. Bush was the first president to address the speaker as “Madam Speaker”.

A formal invitation is made by the Speaker of the House to the President several weeks before each State of the Union Address uniform maker football.

Every member of Congress can bring one guest to the State of the Union address. The President may invite up to 24 guests with the First Lady in his box. The Speaker of the House may invite up to 24 guests in the Speakers box. Seating for Congress on the main floor is by a first-in, first-served basis with no reservations. The Cabinet, Supreme Court justices, members of the Diplomatic Corps, and Joint Chiefs have reserved seating.

By approximately 8:30 pm on the night of the address, the members of the House have gathered in their seats for the joint session. Then, the Deputy Sergeant at Arms addresses the Speaker and loudly announces the Vice President and members of the Senate, who enter and take the seats assigned for them.

The Speaker, and then the Vice President, specify the members of the House and Senate, respectively, who will escort the President into the House chamber. The Deputy Sergeant at Arms addresses the Speaker again and loudly announces, in order, the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps, the Chief Justice of the United States and the Associate Justices, and the Cabinet, each of whom enters and takes their seats when called. The justices take the seats nearest to the Speaker’s rostrum and adjacent to the sections reserved for the Cabinet and the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Just after 9 pm, as the President reaches the door to the chamber, the House Sergeant at Arms stands just inside the doors, faces the Speaker, and waits until the President is ready to enter the chamber. When the President is ready, the Sergeant at Arms announces his entrance, loudly stating the phrase: “Mister/Madam Speaker, the President of the United States!”

As applause and cheering begins, the President slowly walks toward the Speaker’s rostrum, followed by members of his Congressional escort committee. The President’s approach is slowed by pausing to shake hands, hug, kiss, and autograph copies of his speech for Members of Congress. After he takes his place at the House Clerk’s desk, he hands two manila envelopes, previously placed on the desk and containing copies of the speech, to the Speaker and Vice President.

After continuing applause from the attendees has diminished, the Speaker introduces the President to the Representatives and Senators, stating: “Members of Congress, I have the high privilege and distinct honor of presenting to you the President of the United States.” This leads to a further round of applause and, eventually, the beginning of the address by the President.

Customarily, one cabinet member (the designated survivor) does not attend, in order to provide continuity in the line of succession in the event that a catastrophe disables the President, the Vice President, and other succeeding officers gathered in the House chamber. Additionally, since the September 11 attacks in 2001, a few members of Congress have been asked to relocate to undisclosed locations for the duration of the speech to form a rump Congress in the event of a disaster.[citation needed]

Both the Speaker and the Vice President sit at the Speaker’s desk, behind the President for the duration of the speech. If either is unavailable, the next highest-ranking member of the respective house substitutes. Once the chamber settles down from the President’s arrival, the Speaker officially presents the President to the joint session of Congress. The President then delivers the speech from the podium at the front of the House Chamber.

In the State of the Union the President traditionally outlines the administration’s accomplishments over the previous year, as well as the agenda for the coming year, often in upbeat and optimistic terms. Since the 1982 address, it has also become common for the President to honor special guests sitting in the gallery, such as everyday Americans or visiting heads of state. During that 1982 address, President Ronald Reagan acknowledged Lenny Skutnik for his act of heroism following the crash of Air Florida Flight 90. Since then, the term “Lenny Skutniks” has been used to refer to individuals invited to sit in the gallery, and then cited by the President, during the State of the Union.

State of the Union speeches usually last a little over an hour, partly because of the large amounts of applause that occur from the audience throughout. The applause is often political in tone, with many portions of the speech being applauded only by members of the President’s own party. As non-political officeholders, members of the Supreme Court or the Joint Chiefs of Staff rarely applaud in order to retain the appearance of political impartiality. In recent years, the presiding officers of the House and the Senate, the Speaker and the Vice President, respectively, have departed from the neutrality expected of presiding officers of deliberative bodies, as they, too, stand and applaud in response to the remarks of the President with which they agree.

For the 2011 address, Senator Mark Udall of Colorado proposed a break in tradition wherein all members of Congress sit together regardless of party, as well as the avoiding of standing; this was in response to the 2011 Tucson Shooting in which Representative Gabrielle Giffords was shot and wounded in an assassination attempt. This practice was also repeated during the 2012 address.

Since 1966, the speech has been followed on television by a response or rebuttal by a member of the major political party opposing the President’s party. The response is typically broadcast from a studio with no audience. In 1970, the Democratic Party put together a TV program with their speech to reply to President Nixon, as well as a televised response to Nixon’s written speech in 1973. The same thing was done by Democrats for President Reagan’s speeches in 1982 and 1985. The response is not always produced in a studio; in 1997, the Republicans for the first time delivered the response in front of high school students. In 2004, the Democratic Party’s response was also delivered in Spanish for the first time, by New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson. In 2011, Minnesota Congresswoman Michele Bachmann also gave a televised response for the Tea Party Express, a first for a political movement.

Although much of the pomp and ceremony behind the State of the Union address is governed by tradition rather than law, in modern times, the event is seen as one of the most important in the US political calendar. It is one of the few instances when all three branches of the US government are assembled under one roof: members of both houses of Congress constituting the legislature, the President’s Cabinet constituting the executive water bottle free, and the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court constituting the judiciary. In addition, the military is represented by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, while foreign governments are represented by the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps. The address has also been used as an opportunity to honor the achievements of some ordinary Americans, who are typically invited by the President to sit with the First Lady.

Certain states have a similar annual address given by the governor. For most of them, it is called the State of the State address. In Iowa, it is called the Condition of the State Address; in Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, the speech is called the State of the Commonwealth address. The mayor of Washington, D.C cheap socks for sale. gives a State of the District address. American Samoa has a State of the Territory address given by the governor. Puerto Rico has a State Address given by the governor.

Some cities or counties also have an annual State of the City Address given by the mayor, county commissioner or board chair, including Sonoma County, California; Orlando, Florida; Cincinnati, Ohio; New Haven, Connecticut; Parma, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Seattle, Washington; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Los Angeles, California; Buffalo, New York; Rochester, New York; San Antonio, Texas; McAllen, Texas; and San Diego, California. The Mayor of the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County in Nashville, Tennessee gives a speech similar called the State of Metro Address. Some university presidents give a State of the University address at the beginning of every academic term. Private companies usually have a “State of the Corporation” or “State of the Company” address given by the respective CEO.

The State of the Union model has also been adopted by the European Union.