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The Enchanted April

The Enchanted April is a 1922 novel by British-American writer Elizabeth von Arnim. The work was inspired by a month-long holiday to the Italian Riviera, probably the most widely read (as an English and American best seller in 1923) and perhaps the lightest and most ebullient of her novels.

The novel follows four dissimilar women in 1920s England who leave their rainy, grey environments to go on holiday in Italy. Mrs Arbuthnot and Mrs Wilkins, who belong to the same ladies’ club but have never spoken, become acquainted after reading a newspaper advertisement for a small medieval castle on the Mediterranean to be let furnished for April sells goalkeeper gloves australia. They find some common ground in that both are struggling to make the best of unhappy marriages. They also reluctantly take on the waspish, elderly Mrs Fisher and the stunning but aloof Lady Caroline Dester to defray expenses. The very genuine and open Lottie Wilkins, often muddled and awkward in her speech water bottled in glass, has been married only a few years, but she and her husband are rubbing each other the wrong way; as the novel progresses her intuition into her new friends’ feelings and needs plays a major role. Rose Arbuthnot is highly religious lady who does extensive charity work, but is married to an author of racy popular novels who neglects her, partly because of her persistent disapproval of his work. Lady Caroline Dester is a beautiful socialite who is tired of the burden of London society and is beginning to regard her life as shallow and empty, after a man she loved died in WWI. Mrs. Fisher is a pompous, snobbish, highly proper lady who knew many Victorian luminaries and regards herself as the hostess and in control of the holiday; she prefers to live in her memories of times past rather than embracing the present and is emotionally closed-off reusable bpa free water bottles. The four women experience interpersonal tensions but eventually come together at the castle and find rejuvenation in the tranquil beauty of their surroundings, rediscovering hope and love.

Von Arnim wrote, and set, the book in the 15th-century Castello Brown. Critic Terence de Vere White credited The Enchanted April with making the Italian resort of Portofino fashionable.

The Enchanted April has regularly been adapted for the stage and screen:

North Star (Philip Glass)

Ik-Ook, 1972, National Gallery of Art, Canberra

North Star est la bande originale du reportage Mark di Suvero, sculptor de François de Menil et Barbara Rose. Elle a été originellement composée en 1977 par Philip Glass à la demande de Barbara Rose. La plupart des titres reprennent le nom de structures créées par Di Suvero et qui apparaissent dans le film. Pour pouvoir produire un album, certaines compositions ont été réarrangées ou encore remixées. De même, le séquencement a été modifié pour offrir à l’auditeur une expérience d’écoute cohérente.

Philip Glass joue sur des orgues Farfisa, Yamaha et Hammond childs football socks, sur un piano Fender Rhodes et sur synthesizer ARP. Dickie Landry joue sur saxophones soprano et ténor ainsi que de la flûte extra large football socks. Les voix sont celles de Joan Labarbara et Gene Rickard.

La composition Étoile Polaire (North Star) a été reprise en 1979 par Mike Oldfield sur son album Platinum usc football jersey.

La structure Étoile Polaire de Mark di Suvero est visible, en France water bottled in glass, dans le parc de sculptures du musée de Grenoble.

Islam in China (1911–present)

After the fall of the Qing dynasty following the 1911 Xinhai Revolution, Sun Yat-sen, who led the new republic, immediately proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Hui (Muslim), Meng (Mongol), and the Tsang (Tibetan) peoples. When the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, Muslims, along with all other religions in China, suffered repression especially during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). In modern-day China, Islam is undergoing a revival and there has been an upsurge in Islamic expression.

The Manchu dynasty fell in 1911 water bottled in glass, and the Republic of China was established by Sun Yat Sen, who immediately proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Hui (Muslim), Meng (Mongol), and the Tsang (Tibetan) peoples. This led to some improvement in relations between these different peoples. The end of the Qing dynasty also marked an increase in Sino-foreign interaction. This led to increased contact between Muslim minorities in China and the Islamic states of the Middle East. By 1939, at least 33 Hui Muslims had studied at Cairo’s Al-Azhar University. In 1912, the Chinese Muslim Federation was formed in the capital Nanjing. Similar organization formed in Beijing (1912), Shanghai (1925) and Jinan (1934). Academic activities within the Muslim community also flourished. Before the Sino-Japanese War of 1937, there existed more than a hundred known Muslim periodicals. Thirty journals were published between 1911 and 1937. Although Linxia remained the center for religious activities, many Muslim cultural activities had shifted to Beijing. National organizations like the Chinese Muslim Association were established for Muslims. Muslims served extensively in the National Revolutionary Army and reached positions of importance, like General Bai Chongxi, who became Defence Minister of the Republic of China all football jerseys.

In the first decade of the 20th century, it has been estimated that there were 20 million Muslims in China proper (that is, China excluding the regions of Mongolia and Xinjiang). Of these, almost half resided in Gansu, over a third in Shaanxi (as defined at that time) and the rest in Yunnan.

During the Second Sino-Japanese war the Japanese followed what has been referred to as a “killing policy” and destroyed many mosques. According to Wan Lei, “Statistics showed that the Japanese destroyed 220 mosques and killed countless Hui people by April 1941.” After the Rape of Nanking mosques in Nanjing were found to be filled with dead bodies.They also followed a policy of economic oppression which involved the destruction of mosques and Hui communities and made many Hui jobless and homeless. Another policy was one of deliberate humiliation. This included soldiers smearing mosques with pork fat, forcing Hui to butcher pigs to feed the soldiers, and forcing girls to supposedly train as geishas and singers but in fact made them serve as sex slaves. Hui cemeteries were destroyed for military reasons. Many Hui fought in the war against Japan. In 1937, during the Battle of Beiping–Tianjin the Chinese government was notified by Muslim General Ma Bufang of the Ma clique that he was prepared to bring the fight to the Japanese in a telegram message. Immediately after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Ma Bufang arranged for a cavalry division under the Muslim General Ma Biao to be sent east to battle the Japanese. Ethnic Turkic Salar Muslims made up the majority of the first cavalry division which was sent by Ma Bufang.

The Hui Muslim county of Dachang was subjected to slaughter by the Japanese.

On 10 February 1938, Legation Secretary of the German Embassy, Rosen, wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee about the Nanking Massacre to recommend its purchase. Here is an excerpt from his letter and a description of some of its shots, kept in the Political Archives of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin. One of the victims killed by the Japanese was a Muslim (Mohammedan) whose name was Ha.

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking – which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree – the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese … One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.

On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha’s death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet. Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia’s parents, aged 76 and 74, and her two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2–3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7–8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha’s two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword.

Muslims affiliated with the Kuomintang moved to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War. In the Kuomintang Islamic insurgency, Muslim Kuomintang National Revolutionary Army forces in Northwest China, in Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, as well as Yunnan, continued an unsuccessful insurgency against the communists from 1950 to 1958, after the general civil war was over.

The People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949. Through many of the early years there were tremendous upheavals which culminated in the Cultural Revolution. During the Cultural Revolution, Islam, like all religions including traditional Chinese religion, was persecuted by the atheist Red Guards who were encouraged to smash the Four Olds. Traditional Chinese Confucian and Buddhist Temples, Monasteries, Churches and Mosques were all attacked However, while most were suffering malnutrition due to severe food shortages, beef was reserved for Muslim people as much as possible even during the Cultural Revolution. Non-Islam and non-Muslim could only have beef if there happened to be surplus.

Chinese Muslims say that the Soviet Union was worse in regards to its treatment of Islam than China during the “ten black years” (of the Cultural Revolution).

Since the advent of Deng Xiaoping in 1979, the Chinese government liberalised its policies toward Islam and Muslims. New legislation gave all minorities the freedom to use their own spoken and written languages; develop their own culture and education; and practice their religion. More Chinese Muslims than ever before are allowed to go on the Hajj.

Under China’s current leadership, Islam is undergoing a modest revival and there are now many mosques in China. There has been an upsurge in Islamic expression and many nationwide Islamic associations have been organised to co-ordinate inter-ethnic activities among Muslims.

In most of China, Muslims have considerable religious freedom, however, in areas like Xinjiang, where there has been unrest among Uighur Muslims, activities are restricted. There is an ethnic separatist movement among the Uighur minority, who are a Turkic people with their own language. Uighur separatists are intent on establishing the East Turkestan Republic, which existed for a few years in the 1930s and as a Soviet Communist puppet state, the Second East Turkestan Republic 1944-1950. The Soviet Union supported Uighur separatists against China during the Sino-Soviet split. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, China feared potential separatist goals of Muslim majority in Xinjiang. An April, 1996 agreement between Russia, Kazakhstan

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, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, however, assures China of avoiding a military conflict. Other Muslim states have also asserted that they have no intentions of becoming involved in China’s internal affairs. Like many other minority groups, youngsters are always given special opportunities to go to colleges whenever the college system was available. They were usually recommended by the local officials with minimum academic score requirement.

With economic reform after 1978, health care in China became largely private fee-for-service, after the socialist system of free medical care was abolished due to capitalist reforms. This was widely criticised by Muslims in the North West, who were often unable to obtain medical support in their remote communities.

China banned a book titled “Xing Fengsu” (“Sexual Customs”) which insulted Islam and placed its authors under arrest in 1989 after protests in Lanzhou and Beijing by Chinese Hui Muslims, during which the Chinese police provided protection to the Hui Muslim protestors, and the Chinese government organized public burnings of the book. The Chinese government assisted them and gave into their demands because Hui do not have a separatist movement, unlike the Uyghurs, Hui Muslim protestors who violently rioted by vandalizing property during the protests against the book were let off by the Chinese government and went unpunished while Uyghur protestors were imprisoned.

In 2007, CCTV, the People’s Republic of China’s state run television station ordered major advertising agencies not to use pig images, cartoons or slogans “to avoid conflicts with ethnic minorities”, a reference to China’s Muslims.

In response to the 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting Chinese state-run media attacked Charlie Hebdo for publishing the cartoons insulting Muhammad, with the state-run Xinhua advocated limiting freedom of speech, while another state-run newspaper Global Times said the attack was “payback” for what it characterised as Western colonialism and accusing Charlie Hebdo of trying to incite a clash of civilizations.

Different Muslim ethnic groups in different regions are treated differently by the Chinese government in regards to religious freedom. Religious freedom is present for Hui Muslims, who can practice their religion, build Mosques, and have their children attend Mosques, while more controls are placed specifically on Uyghurs in Xinjiang. Since the 1980s Islamic private schools (Sino-Arabic schools (中阿學校)) have been supported and permitted by the Chinese government among Muslim areas, only specifically excluding Xinjiang from allowing these schools because of separatist sentiment there.

Although religious education for children is officially forbidden by law in China, the Communist party allows Hui Muslims to violate this law and have their children educated in religion and attend Mosques while the law is enforced on Uyghurs. After secondary education is completed, China then allows Hui students who are willing to embark on religious studies under an Imam. China does not enforce the law against children attending Mosques on non-Uyghurs in areas outside of Xinjiang.

Hui Muslims who are employed by the state are allowed to fast during Ramadan unlike Uyghurs in the same positions, the amount of Hui going on Hajj is expanding, and Hui women are allowed to wear veils, while Uyghur women are discouraged from wearing them and Uyghurs find it difficult to get passports to go on Hajj.

Hui religious schools are allowed a massive autonomous network of mosques and schools run by a Hui Sufi leader was formed with the approval of the Chinese government even as he admitted to attending an event where Bin Laden spoke.

Uyghur views vary by the oasis they live in. China has historically favored Turpan and Hami. Uyghurs in Turfan and Hami and their leaders like Emin Khoja allied with the Qing against Uyghurs in Altishahr. During the Qing dynasty, China enfeoffed the rulers of Turpan and Hami (Kumul) as autonomous princes, while the rest of the Uyghurs in Altishahr (the Tarim Basin) were ruled by Begs. Uyghurs from Turpan and Hami were appointed by China as officials to rule over Uyghurs in the Tarim Basin. Turpan is more economically prosperous and views China more positively than the rebellious Kashgar, which is the most anti-China oasis. Uyghurs in Turpan are treated leniently and favourably by China with regards to religious policies, while Kashgar is subjected to controls by the government. In Turpan and Hami, religion is viewed more positively by China than religion in Kashgar and Khotan in southern Xinjiang. Both Uyghur and Han Communist officials in Turpan turn a blind eye to the law and allow religious Islamic education for Uyghur children water bottle for running handheld. Celebrating at religious functions and going on Hajj to Mecca is encouraged by the Chinese government, for Uyghur members of the Communist party. From 1979-1989, 350 mosques were built in Turpan. Han, Hui, and the Chinese government are viewed much more positively by Uyghurs specifically in Turpan, with the government providing better economic, religious, and political treatment for them.

Tensions between Hui Muslims and Uyghurs arise because Hui troops and officials often dominated the Uyghurs and crush Uyghur revolts. Xinjiang’s Hui population increased by over 520 percent between 1940 and 1982, an average annual growth of 4.4 percent, while the Uyghur population only grew at 1.7 percent. This dramatic increase in Hui population led inevitably to significant tensions between the Hui and Uyghur populations. Some Uyghurs in Kashgar remember that the Hui army at the Battle of Kashgar (1934) massacred 2,000 to 8,000 Uyghurs, which causes tension as more Hui moved into Kashgar from other parts of China. Some Hui criticize Uyghur separatism and generally do not want to get involved in conflict in other countries. Hui and Uyghur live separately, attending different mosques.

The Uyghur militant organization East Turkestan Islamic Movement’s magazine Islamic Turkistan has accused the Chinese “Muslim Brotherhood” (the Yihewani) of being responsible for the moderation of Hui Muslims and the lack of Hui joining jihadist groups in addition to blaming other things for the lack of Hui Jihadists, such as the fact that for more than 300 years Hui and Uyghurs have been enemies of each other, no separatist Islamist organizations among the Hui, the fact that the Hui view China as their home, and the fact that the “infidel Chinese” language is the language of the Hui.

Hui Muslim drug dealers are accused by Uyghur Muslims of pushing heroin on Uyghurs. Heroin has been vended by Hui dealers. There is a typecast image in the public eye of heroin being the province of Hui dealers. Hui have been involved in the Golden Triangle drug area.

There have been many occurrences of violent sectarian fighting between different Hui sects. Sectarian fighting between Hui sects led to the Jahriyya rebellion in the 1780s and the 1895 revolt. After a hiatus after the People’s Republic of China came to power, sectarian infighting resumed in the 1990s in Ningxia between different sects. Several sects refuse to intermarry with each other. One Sufi sect circulated an anti-Salafi pamphlet in Arabic.

In Tibet, the majority of Muslims are Hui people. Hatred between Tibeans and Muslims stems from events during the Muslim warlord Ma Bufang’s rule in Qinghai such as Ngolok rebellions (1917–49) and the Sino-Tibetan War, but in 1949 the Communists put an end to the violence between Tibetans and Muslims, however, new Tibetan-Muslim violence broke out after China engaged in liberalization. Riots broke out between Muslims and Tibetans over incidents such as bones in soups and prices of balloons, and Tibetans accused Muslims of being cannibals who cooked humans in their soup and of contaminating food with urine. Tibetans attacked Muslim restaurants. Fires set by Tibetans which burned the apartments and shops of Muslims resulted in Muslim families being killed and wounded in the 2008 mid-March riots. Due to Tibetan violence against Muslims, the traditional Islamic white caps have not been worn by many Muslims. Scarfs were removed and replaced with hairnets by Muslim women in order to hide. Muslims prayed in secret at home when in August 2008 the Tibetans burned the Mosque. Incidents such as these which make Tibetans look bad on the international stage are covered up by the Tibetan exile community. The repression of Tibetan separatism by the Chinese government is supported by Hui Muslims. In addition, Chinese-speaking Hui have problems with Tibetan Hui (the Tibetan speaking Kache minority of Muslims).

The main Mosque in Lhasa was burned down by Tibetans and Chinese Hui Muslims were violently assaulted by Tibetan rioters in the 2008 Tibetan unrest. Tibetan exiles and foreign scholars like ignore and do not talk about sectarian violence between Tibetan Buddhists and Muslims. The majority of Tibetans viewed the wars against Iraq and Afghanistan after 9/11 positively and it had the effect of galvanizing anti-Muslim attitudes among Tibetans and resulted in an anti-Muslim boycott against Muslim owned businesses. Tibetan Buddhists propagate a false libel that Muslims cremate their Imams and use the ashes to convert Tibetans to Islam by making Tibetans inhale the ashes, even though the Tibetans seem to be aware that Muslims practice burial and not cremation since they frequently clash against proposed Muslim cemeteries in their area.

Since the Chinese government supports and backs up the Hui Muslims, the Tibetans deliberately attack the Hui Muslims as a way to demonstrate anti-government sentiment and because they have a background of sectarian violence against each other since Ma Bufang’s rule due to their separate religions and ethnicity and Tibetans resent Hui economic domination.

Jingtang Jiaoyu was a system of Islamic education developed during the Ming dynasty among the Hui, centered around Mosques. The Arabic and Persian language Thirteen Classics were part of the main curriculum. In the madrassas, some Chinese Muslim literature like the Han Kitab were used for educational purposes. Liu Zhi (scholar) wrote texts to help Hui learn Arabic. Persian was the main Islamic foreign language used by Chinese Muslims, followed by Arabic.

Hui Muslim Generals like Ma Fuxiang, Ma Hongkui, and Ma Bufang funded schools or sponsored students studying abroad. Imam Hu Songshan and Ma Linyi were involved in reforming Islamic education inside China.

Muslim Kuomintang officials in the Republic of China government supported the Chengda Teachers Academy, which helped usher in a new era of Islamic education in China, promoting nationalism and Chinese language among Muslims, and fully incorporating them into the main aspects of Chinese society. The Ministry of Education provided funds to the Chinese Islamic National Salvation Federation for Chinese Muslim’s education. The President of the federation was General Bai Chongxi (Pai Chung-hsi) and the vice president was Tang Kesan (Tang Ko-san). 40 Sino-Arabic primary schools were founded in Ningxia by its Governor Ma Hongkui.

Imam Wang Jingzhai studied at Al-Azhar University in Egypt along with several other Chinese Muslim students, the first Chinese students in modern times to study in the Middle East. Wang recalled his experience teaching at madrassas in the provinces of Henan (Yu), Hebei (Ji), and Shandong (Lu) which were outside of the traditional stronghold of Muslim education in northwest China, and where the living conditions were poorer and the students had a much tougher time than the northwestern students. In 1931 China sent five students to study at Al-Azhar in Egypt, among them was Muhammad Ma Jian and they were the first Chinese to study at Al-Azhar. Na Zhong, a descendant of Nasr al-Din (Yunnan) was another one of the students sent to Al-Azhar in 1931, along with Zhang Ziren, Ma Jian, and Lin Zhongming.

Hui Muslims from the Central Plains (Zhongyuan) differed in their view of women’s education than Hui Muslims from the northwestern provinces, with the Hui from the Central Plains provinces like Henan having a history of women’s Mosques and religious schooling for women, while Hui women in northwestern provinces were kept in the house. However, in northwestern China reformers started bringing female education in the 1920s. In Linxia, Gansu, a secular school for Hui girls was founded by the Muslim warlord Ma Bufang, the school was named Shuada Suqin Wmen’s Primary School after his wife Ma Suqin who was also involved in its founding. Hui Muslim refugees fled to northwest China from the central plains after the Japanese invasion of China, where they continued to practice women’s education and build women’s mosque communities, while women’s education was not adopted by the local northwestern Hui Muslims and the two different communities continued to differ in this practice.

General Ma Fuxiang donated funds to promote education for Hui Muslims and help build a class of intellectuals among the Hui and promote the Hui role in developing the nation’s strength.

After secondary education is completed, Chinese law then allows students who are willing to embark on religious studies under an Imam.

Pierre Clerget

Pierre Clerget en 1914 au volant de sa « Delage-Clerget » à moteur d’avion Clerget de 50ch.

Pierre Clerget (1875-1943) est un ingénieur, inventeur et industriel en mécanique français, pionnier de l’aviation qui consacra sa vie à la motorisation des aéronefs. Il conçut l’un des premiers moteurs Diesel pour les avions.

Pierre Clerget est né à Dijon en Bourgogne le 29 juin 1875 dans une famille de bourgeois industriels. Son père était fabricant d’alambics.

En 1889, il découvre à 14 ans, à l’occasion de l’Exposition universelle de Paris de 1889 le moteur à explosion à essence de l’ingénieur inventeur Gottlieb Daimler, en même temps qu’Armand Peugeot. Ce sera le début d’une carrière consacrée aux moteurs qu’il commence dans un atelier de mécanique de Dijon. Grâce à des cours du soir, il obtient le diplôme d’ingénieur mécanicien en 1895.

À partir de 1905, Pierre Clerget conçoit des moteurs fabriqués par l’industriel français Clément-Bayard.

En 1911, Clerget met au point un moteur à 4 cylindres de 100 ch, afin d’équiper les ballons dirigeables, puis un 8 cylindres en V de 200 ch. Pesant moins de 200 kg, c’est un des premiers moteurs ayant un rapport poids/puissance inférieur à 1 qui sera utilisé par Gabriel Voisin sur son hydravion en 1912.

Le 18 août 1913, Clerget s’associe avec l’industriel Eugène Blin et fonde l’entreprise Clerget-Blin à Levallois-Perret. Il y commence la fabrication de moteurs rotatifs, la meilleure technologie à l’époque pour les avions légers.

Sous cette marque est lancé fin 1913 le rotatif 7Y de 60 ch, le 7Z et un nouveau 9 cylindres rotatif en étoile de 110 ch, baptisé 9A.

Contrairement aux moteurs Gnome, les moteurs Clerget utilisent des soupapes classiques actionnées par poussoirs et renvois, ce qui leur donne un meilleur rendement : le 7Z consommait 5,70` l d’huile et 42 l de carburant à l’heure pour 85 ch.

Présenté fin 1914, le moteur Clerget 9B de 130 ch est pratiquement identique au 9A de 110 ch, hormis un accroissement de la cylindrée de 15 à 16 litres, avec un régime de rotation un peu supérieur.

Au début de la Première Guerre mondiale, la firme Clerget-Blin est exclue du marché français et se tourne vers la Grande-Bretagne qui apprécie la fiabilité de ses productions, notamment l’avionneur Sopwith Aviation Company qui utilise à grande échelle les Clerget 9A puis 9B.

Pour augmenter la production, la Grande-Bretagne fait fabriquer les moteurs des séries 7 et 9 par plusieurs usines anglaises : Gordon Watney, Gwynnes, Ruston Proctor, et Humber-Bentley. Cette dernière firme, animée par l’ingénieur Walter Owen Bentley, fera évoluer les moteurs 9B (moteurs Bentley BR1 et BR2).

Après la guerre, la firme Clerget-Blin ne survit pas à l’arrêt des commandes militaires et surtout à la taxation a posteriori des profits réalisés durant le conflit. Pour assurer, une fois la paix revenue, le financement de l’effort de guerre et le remboursement des emprunts souscrits, l’Etat ruine ainsi les principaux industriels aéronautiques, tels que Gnome et Rhône ou Blériot. Clerget-Blin est mise en faillite, Eugène Blin se suicide et Pierre Clerget, criblé de dettes, entre comme ingénieur au Service technique de l’aéronautique (STAé) water bottled in glass.

Pierre Clerget développe pour le STAé, le Clerget 9A alimenté au gazole pèse 228 kg et développe 110 ch en 1929 cheap soccer t shirts. En 1930, sur le Clerget 9B la puissance est portée à 200 ch et à 300 ch sur le 9C en 1932.

Suivent des moteurs 14 cylindres en étoile, 14D de 300 chevaux puis en 1934 le 14E de 400 ch. Ce moteur effectue une série d’essais en vol sur le Potez 25 du STAé. En 1934, la petite équipe réunie autour de Pierre Clerget au laboratoire de la porte d’Issy-les-Moulineaux sort le 14F, avec une pompe d’injection améliorée et une double injection directe, délivrant 450 chevaux.

Produit sous licence en petite série chez Hispano-Suiza en 1936 et 1937, ce moteur délivre alors 500 ch à 1 900 tours pour un poids de 585 kg réduit notamment par le passage au refroidissement à air.

Le 14F2 sera homologué le 29 juillet 1938 à la puissance de 520 ch.

En 1938, le STAé ajoute un compresseur Rateau à 2 étages sur un 14F qui devient le Fcs qui délivre 590 ch au sol et jusqu’à 710&nbsp pink footy socks;ch en altitude. Sa sobriété est impressionnante pour l’époque : 120 kg de carburant par heure et son poids reste raisonnable : environ 600 kg. Il sera essayé sur Potez 25 et Bloch 203 de Marcel Dassault.

Mi-1939, l’industrialisation est confiée au GEHL (Groupe d’étude des moteurs à huile lourde) dirigé par Raymond Marchal tandis que Pierre Clerget continue les développements avec une petite équipe installée à Ivry-sur-Seine et rattachée à l’Arsenal de l’aéronautique.

Alors que la fabrication en série du 14F est lancée, l’Armistice du 22 juin 1940 stoppe le projet et disperse l’équipe. Elle reprendra ses travaux pendant l’occupation et travaillera sur une version 14NC de plus de 1 000 ch, basée sur le Gnome et Rhône 14N.

Pierre Clerget est trouvé mort dans le canal du Midi à Moissac en 1943. Les circonstances de sa mort à l’âge de 68 ans restent obscures.

Dès mai 1945, les essais sur le 14NC reprennent à Suresnes. Le 1er janvier 1947

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, le GEHL est absorbé par la SNECMA qui va rapidement décider d’abandonner les moteurs à pistons.

Flagellin

Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum. It has a mass of about 30,000 to 60,000 daltons. Flagellin is the principle component of bacterial flagellum water bottled in glass, and is present in large amounts on nearly all flagellated bacteria.

The structure of flagellin is responsible for the helical shape of the flagellar filament, which is important for its proper function.

The N- and C-termini of flagellin form the inner core of the flagellin protein, and is responsible for flagellin’s ability to polymerize into a filament. The middle residues make up the outer surface of the flagellar filament. While the termini of the protein are quite similar among all bacterial flagellins, the middle portion is wildly variable.

Mammals often have acquired immune responses (T-cell and antibody responses) to flagellated bacterium, which occur frequently to flagellar antigens. Flagellin has also been shown to directly interact with TLR5 on T cells. Some bacteria are able to switch between multiple flagellin genes in order to evade this response personalised glass water bottles.

The propensity of the immune response to flagellin may be explained by two facts:

In addition, a 22-amino acid sequence (flg22) of the conserved N-terminal part of flagellin is known to activate plant defence mechanisms. Flagellin perception in Arabidopsis thaliana functions via the receptor-like-kinase FLS2 (flagellin-sensitive-2)). Upon flg22 detection, FLS2 quickly binds to BAK1 (BRI1-associated kinase 1) to initiate signalling by reciprocal transphosporylation of their kinase domains. Mitogen-activated-protein-kinases (MAPK) acts as downstream signalling compounds best stainless steel thermos, leading ultimately to PAMP-triggered immunity in which more than 900 genes are up-/down-regulated upon flg22 treatment.

Pre-stimulation with a synthetic flg22-peptide led to enhanced resistance against bacterial invaders Women Dresses Cocktail.