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Special member state territories and the European Union

Several European Union member states have territories which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union. These statuses may have a wide range of derogation from EU policies. Most of the territories which are outside the EU nonetheless have a special relationship with the EU.

The outermost regions (OMR) are territories forming part of a member state water glass bottles wholesale, situated a significant distance from mainland Europe, which are part of the EU. According to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, both primary and secondary European Union law applies automatically to these territories, with possible derogations to take account of their “structural social and economic situation … which is compounded by their remoteness, insularity, small size, difficult topography and climate, economic dependence on a few products, the permanence and combination of which severely restrain their development”. All form part of the EU’s customs area, however some fall outside of Schengen Area (all but Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores) and European Union Value Added Tax Area (EU VAT Area).

Seven outermost regions were recognised at the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. The Treaty of Lisbon included two additional territories (Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin) in 2007, both of which seceded from one of the original outermost regions (Guadeloupe). Saint Barthélemy changed its status from OMR to OCT with effect from 1 January 2012. Mayotte, which was formerly an OCT, joined the EU as a OMR with effect from 1 January 2014. As of April 2014, a total of nine territories (six French, two Portuguese, and one Spanish) were registered to have OMR status.

Azores and Madeira are two groups of Portuguese islands in the Atlantic. Azores and Madeira are integral parts of the Portuguese Republic, but both have the special status as Autonomous Regions, with a degree of self-governance. While derogations from the application of EU law could apply, none do. Their VAT is lower than the rest of Portugal, but they are not outside the EU VAT Area.

The Canary Islands are a Spanish archipelago off the African coast which form one of the 17 Autonomous Communities of Spain–the country’s principal first-level administrative division. They are outside the EU VAT Area. The Canary Islands are the most populated and economically strongest territory of all the outermost regions in the European Union. The outermost regions office for support and information is located in these islands, in the city of Las Palmas on the island of Gran Canaria.

French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion are five French overseas departments (and also overseas regions) which under French law are, for the most part, treated as integral parts of the Republic. The euro is legal tender; however, they are outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.

Mayotte is the newest of the five overseas departments having changed from an overseas collectivity, with OCT status, on 31 March 2011. It became an outermost region and thus part of the EU on 1 January 2014.

Saint Martin is the only overseas collectivity of France with the status of being an outermost region of the EU. As with the French overseas departments, the euro is legal tender in Saint Martin, and it is outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.

On 22 February 2007, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy were broken away from the French overseas department of Guadeloupe to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions, European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community. The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty which listed them as an outermost region. However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012.

The overseas countries and territories (OCT) are dependent territories that have a special relationship with one of the member states of the EU, and have been explicitly invited by the EU treaty to join the EU-OCT Association (OCTA). They were listed in Annex II acc. to Article 198 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which aside from inviting them to join OCTA, also provided them the opportunity to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers and freedom of establishment. Yet, the freedom of establishment is limited by Article 203 TFEU and the respective Council Decision on OCTs (). Its Article 51(1)(a) prescribes only that “the Union shall accord to natural and legal persons of the OCTs a treatment no less favourable than the most favourable treatment applicable to like natural and legal persons of any third country with whom the Union concludes or has concluded an economic integration agreement.” Again this can be, according to Article 51(2)(b) limited. The obligations provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to treatment granted under measures providing for recognition of qualifications, licences or prudential measures in accordance with Article VII of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) or the GATS Annex on Financial Services.

The OCTs are not subject to the EU’s common external customs tariffs but may claim customs on goods imported from the EU on a non-discriminatory basis. They are not part of the EU and the EU acquis does not apply to them, though those joining OCTA are required to respect the detailed rules and procedures outlined by this association agreement (Council Decision 2013/755/EU). OCTA members are entitled to ask for EU financial support.

When the Rome Treaty was signed in March 1957, a total of 15 OCTs existed: French West Africa, French Equatorial Africa, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Comoros Archipelago, French Madagascar, French Somaliland, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, French Togoland, French Cameroons, Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of Somalia, Netherlands New Guinea. The list was since then revised multiple times, and comprised—as noted by the Lisbon Treaty—25 OCTs in 2007. One of the French territories subsequently switched status from OMR to OCT (Saint Barthélemy), while another French territory switched from OCT to OMR (Mayotte). As of July 2014, there are still 25 OCTs (twelve with the United Kingdom, six with France, six with the Netherlands and one with Denmark) of which 22 have joined OCTA. The three OCTs which are not part of OCTA (British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory and South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands) do not have a permanent population.

There are twelve overseas territories of the United Kingdom (all but Gibraltar, which, unlike the other territories, is part of the European Union (see below), and the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia on Cyprus), namely:

Bermuda did not – despite having OCT status as defined by the Rome Treaty – join the EU-OCT Association (OCTA) together with the other overseas territories in November 2001, but instead only joined OCTA on 2 July 2014. As of July 2014, it is only the three remote areas without any permanent population (British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands), that are not members of OCTA. All citizens of the British overseas territories, except those residing at Britain’s sovereign bases in Cyprus, were granted full British citizenship by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, and are consequently citizens of the European Union.

A total of six French overseas territories currently have OCT status within EU.

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (which also include the French Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, and the French claim of Adélie Land in Antarctica) is a French Overseas Territory but has no permanent population. It has sui generis status within France.

Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Barthélemy, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna are overseas collectivities (formerly referred to as overseas territories) of France, while New Caledonia is a “sui generis collectivity”. Saint Barthélemy and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon use the euro, while New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna use the CFP Franc, a currency which is tied to the euro and guaranteed by France. Natives of the collectivities are European citizens owing to their French citizenship and elections to the European Parliament are held in the collectivities.

On 22 February 2007, Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin were separated from the French overseas department of Guadeloupe to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence, their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions, European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community. The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty which listed them as outermost regions. However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012. The change was made to facilitate trade with countries outside the EU, notably the United States, and was made possible by a provision of the Lisbon Treaty which allows the European Council to change the EU status of a Danish, Dutch, or French territory on the initiative of the member state concerned.

Six territories of the Netherlands — all of which are Caribbean islands — have OCT status. As such, they benefit from being able to have their own export and import policy to and from the EU, while still having access to receive various EU funds (i.e. from the European Development Fund). The inhabitants of the islands are EU citizens owing to their Dutch citizenship, with the right to vote in elections to the European Parliament. Initially they did not have voting rights for such elections, but the European Court of Justice granted them such rights, when they ruled their exclusion from the franchise was contrary to EU law, as all other Dutch citizens resident outside the EU did have the right to vote. None of the islands use the euro as their currency. The US dollar is used on Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba, while Curaçao and St. Maarten utilize their own shared currency the Antillean guilder, and finally the currency of Aruba is the Aruban florin.

Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are classified as “countries” under Dutch law and have considerable internal autonomy. In June 2008, the Dutch government published a report on the effect on the islands were they to join the EU as outermost regions. It concluded that it would be for the islands themselves to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of becoming part of the EU as outermost regions and that nothing would be done absent the islands specifically requesting it.

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba (collectively called Caribbean Netherlands) are “special municipalities” of the Netherlands proper. Their current OCT status, and the prospect of advancing their status to become part of the EU as new OMRs (outermost regions), has been scheduled to be reviewed by the Dutch parliament in 2015, as part of the planned review of the Dutch law (WOLBES and FINBES) concerning the quality of their recently implemented new public administration bodies. In October 2015, the review concluded the present legal structures for governance and integration with European Netherlands was not working well within the framework of WolBES, but no recommendations were made in regards of whether a switch from OCT to OMR status would help improve this situation.

The islands inherited their OCT status from the Netherlands Antilles which was dissolved in 2010. The Netherlands Antilles were initially specifically excluded from all association with the EEC by reason of a protocol attached to the Treaty of Rome, allowing the Netherlands to ratify on behalf of the Netherlands in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only, which it subsequently did meet tenderizer. Following the entry into force of the Convention on the association of the Netherlands Antilles with the European Economic Community on 1 October 1964, however, the Netherlands Antilles became OCTs.

Greenland joined the then European Community in 1973 as a county along with Denmark, but voted to leave the EC in 1982 and left in 1985, to become an OCT. Citizens of Greenland are, nonetheless, EU citizens owing to their Danish citizenship. The EU–Greenland relationship is a comprehensive partnership, which is complementary to the OCT association arrangements under “Council Decision 2013/755/EU”; based specifically on “Council Decision 2014/137 of 14 March 2014” (outlining the relations) and the Fisheries Partnership Agreement of 30 July 2006.

While the outermost regions and the overseas countries and territories fall into structured categories to which common mechanisms apply, this is not true of all the special territories. Some territories have ad hoc arrangements in their relationship with the EU. Some of these could be called “protocol territories”[citation needed] as their status is governed by protocols attached to their respective countries’ accession treaties. The rest owe their status to European Union legislative provisions which exclude the territories from the application of the legislation concerned. Many were opted out from either the VAT area or the customs union or both.

Åland, a group of islands belonging to Finland, but with partial autonomy, located between Sweden and Finland, with a Swedish-speaking population, joined the EU along with Finland in 1995. The islands had a separate referendum on accession and like the Finnish mainland voted in favour.

EU law, including the fundamental four freedoms, applies to Åland. However, there are some derogations due to the islands’ special status. Åland is outside the VAT area and is exempt from common rules in relation to turnover taxes, excise duties and indirect taxation. In addition, to protect the local economy, the treaty of accession allows for a concept of hembygdsrätt/kotiseutuoikeus (regional citizenship) football player uniform. Consequently, there are restrictions on the holding of property and real estate, the right of establishment for business purposes and limitations on who can provide services in Åland, for people not holding this status. The status may be obtained by any Finnish citizen legally resident in Åland for 5 years who can demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the Swedish language.

The German exclave town of Büsingen am Hochrhein, fully surrounded by Switzerland, is in customs union with the latter non-EU country. The euro is legal tender, although the Swiss franc is preferred. Büsingen is excluded from the EU customs union and VAT area. Swiss VAT and sales taxes are paid.

The Italian exclave village of Campione d’Italia is enclaved by Switzerland’s Ticino canton as well as Lake Lugano (or Ceresio), and is a comune in the Province of Como, whilst Livigno, a small and remote mountain resort town, is a comune in the Province of Sondrio. Both comuni are part of the Lombardy region. Although part of the EU, they are excluded from the customs union and VAT area, with Livigno’s tax status dating back to Napoleonic times. Moreover, the only legal tender in Campione d’Italia is the Swiss franc, although in practice shops and restaurants accept payments also in euro – and their bills present dual price display in both Euros and Francs.

Ceuta and Melilla are two Spanish cities on the North African coast. They are part of the EU but they are excluded from the common agricultural and fisheries policies. They are also outside the customs union and VAT area, but no customs are levied on goods exported from the Union into either Ceuta and Melilla, and certain goods originating in Ceuta and Melilla are exempt from customs charges.

While nominally part of the Schengen Area, Spain performs identity checks on all sea and air passengers leaving the enclaves for elsewhere in the Schengen Area.

The Bailiwick of Jersey and Bailiwick of Guernsey—which form the Channel Islands—are Crown dependencies, under the sovereignty of the British monarch and thus part of the remaining British Empire. The islands take part in the EU freedom of movement of goods but not labour, services or capital. They are outside the VAT area, but inside the customs union.

Channel Islanders are British citizens and hence European citizens. As a result, they can travel freely within the EU, and all European citizens can travel to the islands without restrictions. However, the islands do not participate in the freedom of movement of labour, and as a result their citizens are not entitled to work or reside within the EU unless they are directly connected (through birth, or descent from a parent or grandparent) with the United Kingdom. After five years continuous residence in the United Kingdom, islanders are entitled to participate in the freedom of movement of labour or services throughout the EU.

The Isle of Man is a Crown dependency, under the sovereignty of the British monarch. The island takes part in the EU freedom of movement of goods but not labour, services or capital. The Isle of Man is inside the VAT area and the customs union.

Manx people are British citizens and hence European citizens. As a result, they can travel freely within the EU, and all European citizens can travel to the Isle of Man without restrictions. However, the island does not participate in the freedom of movement of labour, and as a result its citizens are not entitled to work or reside within the EU unless they are directly connected (through birth, or descent from a parent or grandparent) with the United Kingdom. After five years continuous residence in the United Kingdom, Manx people are entitled to participate in the freedom of movement of labour or services throughout the EU.

When the Republic of Cyprus became part of the European Union on 1 May 2004, the northern third of the island was outside of the effective control of its government due to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, a United Nations buffer zone of varying width separated the two parts, and a further 3% of the island was taken up by UK sovereign bases (under British sovereignty since the Treaty of Establishment in 1960). Two protocols to the Treaty of Accession 2003 – numbers 3 and 10, known as the “Sovereign Base Areas Protocol” and the “Cyprus Protocol” respectively – reflect this complex situation.

EU law only applies fully to the part of the island that is effectively controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. EU law is suspended in the northern third of the island (the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, whose independence is recognised only by Turkey) by article 1(1) of the Cyprus Protocol. If the island is reunified, the Council of the European Union will repeal the suspension by a decision. Four months after such a decision has been adopted, new elections to the European Parliament will be held on the island to elect Cypriot representatives from the whole of the island.

Cypriot nationality law applies to the entire island and is accordingly available to the inhabitants of Northern Cyprus and the British sovereign base areas on the same basis as to those born in the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus. Citizens of the Republic of Cyprus living in Northern Cyprus are EU citizens and are entitled to vote in elections to the European Parliament; however, elections to that Parliament are not organised in Northern Cyprus.[citation needed]

The United Kingdom has two sovereign base areas on Cyprus, namely Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Unlike other British overseas territories, they are not listed as Overseas Countries and Territories under the Treaty of Rome and their inhabitants (who are entitled to British Overseas Territories Citizenship) have never been entitled to British citizenship.

Prior to Cypriot accession to the EU in 2004, EU law did not apply to the sovereign base areas. This position was changed by the Cypriot accession treaty and EU law, while still not applying in principle, applies to the extent necessary to implement a protocol attached to that treaty. This protocol applies EU law relating to the Common Agricultural Policy, customs, indirect taxation, social policy and justice and home affairs to the sovereign base areas. The sovereign base areas’ authorities have also made provision for the unilateral application of directly applicable EU law. The UK also agreed in the Protocol to keep enough control of the external (i.e. off-island and northern Cyprus) borders of the base areas to ensure that the border between the sovereign base areas and the Republic of Cyprus can remain fully open and will not have to be policed as an external EU border. Consequently, the sovereign base areas will become a de facto part of the Schengen Area if and when Cyprus implements it. The base areas are already de facto members of the eurozone due to their previous use of the Cypriot pound before it was replaced by the euro in 2008.

As pointed out above, inhabitants of the sovereign base areas have never been entitled to British citizenship or to the European Union citizenship that would go with it, however Cypriot nationality law extends to Cypriots in the Sovereign Base Areas, meaning Cypriot residents, as citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, are entitled to EU citizenship. Just under half of the population of the sovereign base areas are Cypriots, the rest are British military personnel, support staff and their dependants. In a declaration attached to the Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus of 1960 the British government undertook not to allow new settlement of people in the sovereign base areas other than for temporary purposes.

The United Nations buffer zone between north and south Cyprus ranges in width from a few metres in central Nicosia to several kilometres in the countryside. While it is nominally under the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus, it is effectively administered by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). The population of the zone is 8,686 (as of October 2007), and one of the mandates of UNFICYP is “to encourage the fullest possible resumption of normal civilian activity in the buffer zone”. Article 2.1 of the Cyprus Protocol allows the European Council to determine to what extent the provisions of EU law apply in the buffer zone.

The Faroe Islands are not part of the EU, and they have not been part of the EU since Denmark joined the community in 1973. Danish citizens residing on the islands are not considered citizens of a member state within the meaning of the treaties or, consequently, citizens of the European Union. However, Faroese people may become EU citizens by changing their residence to the Danish mainland.

The Faroe Islands are not part of the Schengen Area, and Schengen visas are not valid. However, the islands are part of the Nordic Passport Union and the Schengen Agreement provides that travellers passing between the islands and the Schengen Area are not to be treated as passing the external frontier of the Area. This means that there is an identity check at air or boat travel to the islands where Nordic citizens on intra-Nordic travel need no passport, only showing the ticket plus identity card.

Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula and overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar, sharing a border with Spain to the north. It is part of the EU, having joined the European Economic Community under the United Kingdom in 1973. Article 355(3) (ex Article 299(4)) applies the treaty to “the European territories for whose external relations a Member State is responsible”, a provision which in practice only applies to Gibraltar. Although it is part of the EU, Gibraltar is outside the customs union and VAT area and is exempted from the Common Agricultural Policy; it does not form part of the Schengen Area. As a separate jurisdiction to the UK, Gibraltar’s government and parliament are responsible for the transposition of EU law into local law. In 2016 Gibraltar voted “remain” in the UK EU membership referendum; however Gibraltar’s membership is not distinct from the UK’s and Gibraltar is bound by the overall result of “leave”

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Owing to a declaration lodged by the United Kingdom with the EEC in 1982, Gibraltarians were to be counted as British nationals for the purposes of Community law. This was notwithstanding that they were not all, at the time, British citizens but many were British Overseas Territories citizens. As such Gibraltarians have enjoyed European Union citizenship from its creation by the Maastricht Treaty. Since 21 May 2002, all Gibraltarians have been granted the right to register a full British citizenship, while those who previously held a British Overseas Territory citizenship automatically were converted now to have a full British citizenship. Any child born in Gibraltar after 21 May 2002 will automatically become a British citizen, if just one of its parents is a British citizen or a Gibraltarian resident.

Despite their status as EU citizens resident in the EU, elections to the European Parliament were not held in Gibraltar until 2004. The inclusion resulted from the European Court of Human Rights’ 1999 ruling in Matthews v. United Kingdom which deemed that Gibraltar’s exclusion violated Article 3 of Protocol 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights. In the 2004 European Parliament election the territory formed part of the South West England constituency of the United Kingdom. The inclusion was unsuccessfully challenged by Spain before the European Court of Justice.

Like the UK, Gibraltar does not form part of the Schengen Area and, as a result, the border between Spain and Gibraltar is an external Schengen border through which Spain is legally obliged to perform full entrance and exit controls. However Gibraltar does participate in certain police and judicial cooperation aspects of the Schengen acquis in line with the UK’s request to participate in the same measures.

With respect to the application of EU law to Gibraltar, the governments of Spain and the United Kingdom made the following Declaration which is appended (as Declaration 55) to the Treaty on European Union: “The Treaties apply to Gibraltar as a European territory for whose external relations a Member State is responsible. This shall not imply changes in the respective positions of the Member States concerned.”

Helgoland is an island of Germany situated in the North Sea 70 km (43 mi) off the German north-western coast. It is part of the EU, but is excluded from the customs union and the VAT area.

Mount Athos is an autonomous monastic region of Greece. Greece’s EU accession treaty provides that Mount Athos maintains its centuries-old special legal status, guaranteed by article 105 of the Greek Constitution. It is part of the customs union but outside the VAT area. Notwithstanding that a special permit is required to enter the peninsula and that there is a prohibition on the admittance of women, it is part of the Schengen Area. The monastery has certain rights to house monks from countries outside the EU. A declaration attached to Greece’s accession treaty to the Schengen Agreement states that Mount Athos’s “special status” should be taken into account in the application of the Schengen rules.

The Saimaa Canal and Värska–Ulitina road are two of several distinct travel arrangements that exist or existed because of changes in borders over the course of the 20th century, where transport routes and installations ended up on the wrong side of the border. Some have become superfluous thanks to the Schengen Agreement.

Finland leases the 19.6 km-long Russian part of the Saimaa Canal from Russia and is granted extraterritoriality rights. The area is not part of the EU, it is a special part of Russia. Under the treaty signed by Finnish and Russian governments, Russian law is in force with a few exceptions concerning maritime rules and the employment of canal staff which fall under Finnish jurisdiction. There are also special rules concerning vessels travelling to Finland via the canal. Russian visas are not required for just passing through the canal, but a passport is needed and it is checked at the border. Euros are accepted for the canal fees. Prior to the 50-year lease renewal coming into effect in February 2012, the Maly Vysotsky Island had also been leased and managed by Finland. Since then it has been fully managed by Russian authorities, and is no longer part of the concession territory.

The road from Värska to Ulitina in Estonia, traditionally the only road to the Ulitina area, goes through Russian territory for one kilometre (0.6 mi) of its length, an area called Saatse Boot. This road has no border control, but there is no connection to any other road in Russia. It is not permissible to stop or walk along the road. This area is a part of Russia but is also a de facto part of the Schengen area.

Many currently independent states or parts of such were previously territories of the following EU members since the latter joined the EU or, previously the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC):

Most of these territories seceded before the implementation of the Maastricht treaty in 1993 and the following years, meaning that cooperation like the EU citizenship, the VAT union or the Eurozone did not exist, so it made less difference to be a special territory then.

These were:

Additionally in Europe there were special territories in the past that had different status than their “mainland”, because of various reasons, but now are part of a member state. Some of these territories were as follows:

The following areas are still special member state territories, but have changed their status. See their entries in the article for details.

Some European countries are strongly connected to the European Union, through the European Economic Area or similar agreements. These countries are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, the member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). They are inside the single market (with exceptions) and the Schengen area, but outside the Eurozone, customs territory, and VAT area. Norway and Switzerland have special areas.

This table summarises the various components of EU laws applied in the EU member states and their sovereign territories. Member states that do not have special-status territories are not included (as there the EU law applies fully with the exception of the opt-outs in the European Union and states under a safeguard clause or transitional period). Some territories of EFTA member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied as is the case with some European microstates.

Summary for member states that do not have special-status territories, but do not participate in certain EU provisions as they are either not yet eligible or have an opt-out.

A list of the remaining member states which do not have special-status territories, and participate in all EU provisions:


The High Contracting Parties,

Anxious, at the time of signature of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, to define the scope of the provisions of Article 227 of this Treaty in respect of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,

Have agreed upon the following provisions, which shall be annexed to this Treaty:

The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, by reason of the constitutional structure of the Kingdom resulting from the Statute of 29 December 1954, shall, by way of derogation from Article 227, be entitled to ratify the Treaty on behalf of the Kingdom in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only.

Done at Rome this twenty-fifth day of March in the year one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven.

Józef Kaźmierczyk

Józef Kaźmierczyk (ur water bottle topper for toddlers. 14 marca 1926 w Konaszówce, zm. 21 września 1993 we Wrocławiu) – polski archeolog, wykładowca Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego waterproof bag for smartphone.

Urodzony 14 marca 1926 roku w Konaszówce. Podczas niemieckiej okupacji ukończył gimnazjum w ramach tajnego nauczania i w 1946 roku uzyskał maturę w liceum w Miechowie. Studiował na Wydziale Filozoficzno-Historycznym Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, który ukończył w 1951 roku ze stopniem magistra filozofii z zakresu historii.

Jeszcze podczas studiów zainteresował się archeologią i w 1949 podjął pracę asystenta przy wykopaliskach na Ślęży, w Niemczy i Opolu u prof. Włodzimierza Hołubowicza. W 1953 roku został pracownikiem nowopowstałego Instytutu Historii Kultury Materialnej PAN we Wrocławiu i pracował w nim do 1971 roku, gdy przeniósł się na Uniwersytet Wrocławski. Doktoryzował się w 1963 roku, a w 1971 uzyskał habilitację. Prowadził badania nad osadnictwem wczesnego średniowiecza na Śląsku, rozwojem Wrocławia w średniowieczu i górnictwem złota na Śląsku water glass bottles wholesale.

W latach 1973–1985 był członkiem redakcji „Przeglądu Archeologicznego”.

Zmarł 21 września 1993 r how do i tenderize a steak. we Wrocławiu i został pochowany na cmentarzu św. Rodziny we Wrocławiu.

Presidio Modelo

Das Presidio Modelo (spanisch für Modellgefängnis) war eine nach dem Vorbild des Panopticons entworfene Strafanstalt auf der kubanischen Insel Isla de la Juventud (damals Isla de Pinos).

Das Gefängnis wurde unter Diktator Gerardo Machado von 1926 bis 1928 erbaut. Während des Zweiten Weltkriegs dienten zwei der zum Gefängnis gehörenden Gebäude dazu, internierte deutsche und japanische Staatsangehörige aufzunehmen. Nach dem Sieg der von Fidel Castro angeführten Revolution im Jahre 1959 wurde das Presidio Modelo genutzt, um politische Gegner, Konterrevolutionäre, Homosexuelle, Zeugen Jehovas und andere Menschen, die nicht in den neuen sozialistischen Staat passten, zu internieren. Die insgesamt fünf runden Gebäude, von denen das mittlere der Speisesaal war, waren für 2500 Insassen dimensioniert, tatsächlich war das Gefängnis jedoch mit 6000 bis 8000 Häftlingen oft überfüllt. Im Jahr 1961 gab es deswegen mehrere Gefängnisaufstände und Hungerstreiks unter den vorwiegend politischen Gefangenen des neuen Castro-Staates.

Nach Aussagen von damaligen Häftlingen wurden kurz vor der Invasion in der Schweinebucht 1961 Vorbereitungen getroffen, die Gefängnisse (mitsamt den Insassen) im Falle eines Befreiungsversuchs mittels TNT-Ladungen in den unterirdischen Gängen zu sprengen. Die Sprengladungen wurden nach der Raketenkrise im Herbst 1962 entfernt.

Auf insgesamt fünf Stockwerken gab es ringsum durchnummerierte Zellen, insgesamt 465 pro Gebäude water glass bottles wholesale. Jede Zelle war ursprünglich für zwei Personen ausgelegt und hatte eine Toilette und einen Waschtisch. Von einem mittigen Turm, der nur über einen unterirdischen Gang erreichbar war, konnten alle Zellen rund um die Uhr eingesehen werden. Im Erdgeschoss befanden sich die Duschen entlang der Wand.

Die meisten überlebenden Aufständischen des Angriffes auf die Moncada-Kaserne, wie z. B. die Brüder Fidel und Raúl Castro, Ramiro Valdés, Juan Almeida oder Mario Chanes de Armas waren 1953–1955 im Presidio Modelo interniert. Für die prominenten politischen Gefangenen gab es jedoch einen eigenen Trakt best running hydration, in dem sie von den anderen Gefangenen isoliert verwahrt wurden. In diesem rechteckigen Raum stand ein Bett neben dem anderen, und das Licht wurde niemals ausgemacht. Für diesen Trakt gab es einen Sanitärraum mit drei Duschen, zwei Toiletten und einem Waschbecken.

Zu den mehreren Tausend politischen Gefangenen, die hier nach der Kubanischen Revolution inhaftiert waren, gehörten unter anderem Huber Matos, Eloy Gutiérrez Menoyo, Armando Valladares, Luis Andrés Vargas Gómez, Pedro Luis Boitel und die 1959 beim Kriegsverbrecherprozess gegen Angehörige der Kubanischen Luftwaffe Verurteilten.

Das Gefängnis wurde 1967 geschlossen, zum nationalen Denkmal erklärt und beherbergt heute ein Museum. So kann man hier z.&nbsp stainless steel in water;B. die Betten besichtigen, in denen prominente Gefangene gelegen haben. Im ehemaligen Verwaltungsgebäude ist heute eine Volksschule untergebracht.

Zeitungsartikel von Pablo de la Torriente Brau über seine Erfahrungen im Gefängnis:




Dürr-Ellenbach war ein Ort, dessen Gemarkung mit Aschbach, einem Ortsteil von Wald-Michelbach im hessischen Kreis Bergstraße, vereinigt wurde. Von dem Ort ist nur ein Forsthaus übrig geblieben.

Dürr-Ellenbach liegt mitten im Odenwald im Osten des Gemeindegebiets von Wald-Michelbach, an einer Talverzweigung des gleichnamigen Bachs. Der Ellenbach ist ein linker östlicher Zufluss des Ulfenbachs. Er entspringt am Südhang des Kleinen Meisenbergs (528 m), fließt nach Süden und mündet bei Ober-Schönmattenwag. Die Dorfstelle ist allseits von bewaldeten Höhen umgeben, ein Teil des Talgrundes steht unter Naturschutz, stellenweise gibt es auch kleine Wiesenflächen.

Die nächstgelegenen Ortschaften sind Aschbach im Westen, Affolterbach im Norden, Olfen im Osten sowie Raubach und Ober-Schönmattenwag im Süden.

Dürr-Ellenbach entstand im Gebiet der ehemaligen Mark Heppenheim die einen Verwaltungsbezirk des Frankenreichs bezeichnete. Am 20. Januar 773 schenkte Karl der Große die Stadt Heppenheim nebst dem zugehörigen Bezirk, der ausgedehnten Mark Heppenheim, dem Reichskloster Lorsch. Von hier wurde die Urbarmachung und Besiedlung des Gebietes betrieben. Der Blütezeit des Klosters Lorsch, in dessen Gebiet Dürr-Ellenbach lag, folgte im 11. und 12. Jahrhundert sein Niedergang. 1232 wurde Lorsch dem Erzbistum Mainz unterstellt.

Die erste Erwähnung des Ortes findet sich 1437 als Dorn Elbach im Urkundenbuch des Staatsarchives Darmstadt des Ortes Ober-Schönmattenwag. Die Siedlung bestand aus einzelnen Höfen ohne Ortscharakter. Schon im Jahr 1430 gab es eine Erwähnung des Gebiets in einem Schiedsspruch zwischen Erzbischof Konrad von Mainz und dem Pfalzgrafen Ludwig, wonach Kurmainz seit der Zeit Erzbischofs Adolf »in Dornellbacher Allmend die Jagd hatte«.

Aus dem Jahr 1480 ist überliefert dass Dürr-Ellenbach den kleinen Zehnten von jährlich 4 fl. an die Kurmainzer Kellerei Heppenheim zu liefert hatte.

Für das Jahr 1568 ist belegt dass Dürr-Ellenbach zum Kurmainzer „Amt Starkenburg“ und dort zur „Zent Abtsteinach“ zählt. Im Verlauf der für Kurmainz verhängnisvollen Mainzer Stiftsfehde wurde das Amt Starkenburg an Kurpfalz wiedereinlöslich verpfändet und blieb anschließend für 160 Jahre pfälzisch. Pfalzgraf Friedrich ließ sich für seine Unterstützung von Erzbischof Dieter – im durch die Kurfürsten am 19. November 1461 geschlossenen „Weinheimer Bund“ – das „Amt Starkenburg“ verpfänden, wobei Kurmainz das Recht erhielt, das Pfand für 100.000 Pfund wieder einzulösen.

Die Gerichtsbarkeit über den Ort wurde durch die „Zent Abtsteinach“ ausgeübt. Innerhalb der Zent bildet Dürr-Ellenbach zusammen mit sechs weiteren Orten (Hartenrod, Gadern, Kocherbach, Aschbach, Lützelbach, Buchklingen) und neun Höfen in Wald-Michelbach das „Hartenroder Gericht“, ein gemeinsames Schultzengericht. Appellationsgericht und Oberhof waren das Zentgericht in Abtsteinach und bis 1782 der Oberhof in Heppenheim. Zwischenzeitlich wurde der Status des „Hartenroder Gerichts“ wohl aufgewertet, denn 1654 wurde von einem „Ganz Gericht“ berichtet. Anfang des 16. Jahrhunderts war der Ort eine Filiale der Pfarrei in Güttersbach.

In den Anfängen der Reformation sympathisierten die pfälzischen Herrscher offen mit dem lutherischen Glauben, aber erst unter Ottheinrich (Kurfürst von 1556 bis 1559) erfolgte der offizielle Übergang zur lutherischen Lehre. Danach wechselten seine Nachfolger und gezwungenermaßen auch die Bevölkerung mehrfach zwischen der lutherischen, reformierten und calvinistischen Religion. Die Orte der „Zent Abtsteinach“ gehörten 1568 zur reformierten Pfarrei Waldmichelbach.

Als im Laufe des Dreißigjährigen Krieges (1618–1648) spanische Truppen der „Katholischen Liga“ die Region eroberten wurde 1623 die Kurmainzer Herrschaft wieder hergestellt. Dadurch wurde die durch die Pfalzgrafen eingeführte Reformation weitgehend wieder rückgängig gemacht und die Bevölkerung musste wieder zum katholischen Glauben zurückkehren. Zwar zogen sich die spanischen Truppen nach 10 Jahren vor den anrückenden Schweden zurück aber nach der katastrophalen Niederlage der Evangelischen in der Nördlingen 1634 verließen auch die Schweden die Bergstraße und mit dem Schwedisch-Französischen Krieg begann ab 1635 das blutigste Kapitel des Dreißigjährigen Krieges. Aus der Region berichten die Chronisten aus jener Zeit: „Pest und Hunger wüten im Land und dezimieren die Bevölkerung, sodass die Dörfer öfters völlig leer stehen“. Mit dem Westfälischen Frieden von 1648 wurde die Einlösung der Pfandschaft endgültig festgeschrieben. 1658 lässt der Mainzer Erzbischof Johann Philipp von Schönborn in Ober-Abtsteinach eine dem heiligen Bonifatius geweihte Kirche errichten zu dessen Pfarrei 23 Orte gehören und die einzige Kirche der ganzen „Zent Abtsteinnach“ war und zum „Bergsträßer Landkapitel“ zählte.

Aus dem Jahr 1654 ist bekannt, dass der Ort aus 2 1/4 Huben bestand und der Zehnte zu 2/3 an die Kurmainzer Kellerei zu Heppenheim und zu 1/3 an den Grafen zu Erbach abgeführt werden musste.

Als es 1782 zu einer Umstrukturierung im Bereich des Kurmainzer Amtes Starkenburg kam, wurde der Bereich des Amtes in Unterämter eingeteilt und das Amt in Oberamt umbenannt. Die „Zent Abtsteinanch“, in der Dürr-Ellenbach lag, wurde dem neu errichteten „Amt Fürth“ unterstellt. Zwar blieb die Zentordnung mit dem Zentschultheiß formal bestehen, dieser konnte jedoch nur noch die Anordnungen der übergeordneten Behörden (Oberamt Starkenburg, Unteramt Fürth) ausführen. Das „Oberamt Starkenburg“ gehörte verwaltungsmäßig zum „Unteren Erzstift“ des Kurfürstentums Mainz.

Die weitere Geschichte ist weitgehend mit der Aschbachs identisch. So wird auch Dürr-Ellenbach 1803 hessisch. Ab 1821 wird Dürr-Ellenbach wie Aschbach von der Bürgermeisterei in Gadern des Landratsbezirks Lindenfels in Großherzogtum Hessen verwaltet.

Konrad Dahl berichtet 1812 in seiner Historisch-topographisch-statistische Beschreibung des Fürstenthums Lorsch, oder Kirchengeschichte des Oberrheingaues über Dürr-Ellenbach als Ort des „Hartenroder Gerichts“ der „Zent Abtsteinach“:

»Dürrelmbach (Dürellenbach oder Kleinellenbach) ein Weiler von 2 Huben mit 3 Häusern und 42 Selen. !/4 Stunde von dem vorigen Orte (Aschbach) entfernt.«

Die Statistisch-topographisch-historische Beschreibung des Großherzogthums Hessen berichtet 1829 über Dürr-Ellenbach:

»Dürrellenbach (L. Bez. Lindenfels) kath. Filialdorf; auch Kleinellenbach; liegt 3 1/4 St. von Lindenfels, hat 5 Häuser und 52 Einw., die bis auf 1 Reform. katholisch sind. Im Jahr 1802 kam der Ort von Mainz an Hessen.«

Dürr-Erlenbach kam dann, wie auch Aschbach, 1832 zum Kreis Heppenheim und gehörte von zwischenzeitlich (1852–1874) zum Kreis Lindenfels bevor der Kreis Heppenheim im heutigen Kreis Bergstraße.

Im Neuestes und gründlichstes alphabetisches Lexicon der sämmtlichen Ortschaften der deutschen Bundesstaaten von 1845 finden sich folgender Eintrag:

»Ellenbach, auch Dürrellenbach, Kleinellenbach genannt. — Dorf, zur reform. Pfarrei Waldmichelbach, resp. kathol. Pfarrei Ablsteinach gehörig. — 5 H. 52 E. — Großherzogth. Hessen. — Provinz Starkenburg. — Kreis Heppenheim. — Landgericht Fürth. — Hofgericht Darmstadt.«:

Die im Dezember 1852 aufgenommenen Bevölkerungs- und Katasterlisten ergaben für Dürr-Ellenbach: Katholisches Filialdorf (auch Dürrellenbachder oder Kleinelenbacher Höfe) mit 402 Einwohnern. Die Gemarkung besteht aus 1335 Morgen, davon 301 Morgen Ackerland, 70 Morgen Wiesen und 1013 Morgen Wald.

In den Statistiken des Großherzogtums Hessen werden, bezogen auf Dezember 1867, für das Filialdorf Dürr-Ellenbach mit der Bürgermeisterei in Aschbach, 3 Häuser, 27 Einwohnern, der Kreis Lindenfels, das Landgericht Fürth, die evangelische Pfarrei Wald-Michelbach mit dem Dekanat in Lindenfels und die katholische Pfarrei Wald-Michelbach des Dekanats Heppenheim, angegeben.

Als Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts die Lebensverhältnisse im Odenwald immer schlechter wurden, wanderte fast die gesamte Einwohnerschaft von Dürr-Ellenbach nach Amerika aus water glass bottles wholesale. Übrig blieb nur der Hof des Johann Georg Göltz, der als gräfliches Forsthaus und später als Revierförsterei bzw. Dienstwohnung genutzt wurde.

Im Jahr 1927 wurde Gemarkungsgröße mit 333,8 ha angegeben.

Am 1. April 1939 wurde die Gemarkung Dürr-Ellenbach in die Gemeinde Aschbach eingegliedert und als Flur 5 in der Gemarkung Aschbach weitergeführt. Zusammen mit Aschbach wurde das Gebiet von Dürr-Ellenbach am 1. Oktober 1971 Teil der Gemeinde Wald-Michelbach.

Nach der Forstreform 2005 im heutigen Hessen-Forst wurde die Försterei Dürr-Ellenbach aufgelöst und das Forsthaus ist seitdem die Mietwohnung eines Forstarbeiters.

Die folgenden Einwohnerzahlen sind für den Ort Dürr-Ellenbach bis 1970 belegt:

Dürr-Ellenbach ist nur über Wald- und Wanderwege erreichbar. Das Forsthaus ist durch eine Forststraße erschlossen, die von der Landesstraße L 3120 (Affolterbach – Olfen) nach Süden abzweigt.

Affolterbach | Aschbach mit dem hist. Weiler Dürr-Ellenbach&nbsp insulated metal water bottle;| Gadern | Hartenrod | Kocherbach | Kreidach | Ober-Schönmattenwag | Siedelsbrunn | Unter-Schönmattenwag mit Weiler Korsika | Kerngemeinde Wald-Michelbach mit Weilern Ober-Mengelbach und Stallenkandel

Côme de Maïouma

Côme de Maïouma est un évêque et hymnographe orthodoxe du VIIIe siècle. Il est né à Damas vers 675 et mort à Maïouma vers 760.

Il est aussi appelé Cosmas de Maïouma, ou Cosmas de Jérusalem, ou Cosmas le Mélode water glass bottles wholesale, ou encore Cosmas l’Hymnographe.

Fête le 14 octobre

Orphelin de père et de mère, Côme (en grec, Κοσμάς) fut adopté (à la fin du VIIe siècle ou au début du VIIIe) par un riche notable chrétien de Damas, Serge, le père du futur saint Jean Damascène.

L’instruction des deux “frères” fut confiée à un moine précepteur, Côme de Sicile. Ce dernier avait été enlevé par des pirates musulmans, et s’en était lamenté auprès de Serge,se plaignant d’avoir beaucoup étudié pour rien et d’être un esclave inutile wool fluff remover. Serge le racheta pour en faire l’éducateur de ses deux fils. Côme (de Maïouma) et Jean étudièrent la grammaire, la philosophie eco stainless steel water bottle, la musique, l’astronomie et la géométrie.

Ils devinrent, vers 726, moines à la laure de Saint-Sabas à Jérusalem.

Côme fut élu évêque de Maïouma en Palestine (région de Gaza). Il mourut dans cette ville et fut rapidement canonisé.

Cosmas composa de nombreux hymnes (quatorze “canons” et des “triodes”) pour la plupart des grandes fêtes de l’année liturgique, où se présente, dans une langue accessible à tous, le contenu dogmatique de la fête.

Sa composition la plus connue est le “Toi plus vénérable que les chérubins”, chantée à la 9e ode du canon des matines.