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Grammatologie

Grammatologie (γράμμα gramma, deutsch ‚Buchstabe‘ + griechisch λόγος logos, deutsch ‚Lehre‘) ist die Wissenschaft von der Schrift. Die Grammatologie schließt je nach Auslegung Teildisziplinen unterschiedlicher Wissenschaften ein: Schriftlinguistik, Paläografie und Epigraphik sowie Typografie und Kalligrafie.

Der Begriff wurde nicht, wie immer wieder behauptet, vom Orientalisten Ignace Gelb eingeführt, der ihn ohnehin nur in der ersten Auflage seines Standardwerks über die Schrift A Study of Writing aus dem Jahr 1952 im Untertitel „The Foundations of Grammatology“ nutzte where to buy reusable water bottles. 1792 gibt der Orientalist und Sprachphilosoph Johann Gottfried Hasse, Tischgenosse Kants und dessen Nachfolger im Senat der Universität Königsberg, den „Versuch einer griechischen und lateinischen Grammatologie für den akademischen Unterricht und obere Classen der Schulen“ heraus. 1847 folgt Karl Ernst Prüfers „Kritik der hebräischen Grammatologie“ und 1863 Joseph F. P. Massé „Grammatologie Française“. Derrida schreibt in der Grammatologie 1967 unmissverständlich: „Unseres Wissens ist dieses Wort in den letzten Jahren nur von I. J. Gelb zur Bezeichnung des Entwurfs einer modernen Wissenschaft verwendet worden.“ Der Koreanist André Eckardt benutzt „Grammatologie“ schon 1965 in seiner „Philosophie der Schrift“.

Der Philosoph Jacques Derrida übernahm den Ausdruck Grammatologie in seinem gleichnamigen Hauptwerk aus dem Jahre 1967 und machte ihn allgemeiner bekannt. Darin vertritt er die These meat tenderizer needles, dass im abendländischen Denken die Schrift unberechtigterweise zu einer bloßen Hilfsform der gesprochenen Sprache degradiert wird. Derrida zielt darauf, die Schrift und die Wissenschaft von der Schrift wieder aufzuwerten, wobei Grammatologie für Derrida den Gegensatz Sprachwissenschaft/Schriftwissenschaft bzw. Linguistik/Semiologie durchkreuzt und keinem von beiden zugehört, sondern allgemeiner als diese ist. Dies dient Derrida der Ideologiekritik: die bloße Hilfsfunktion der Schrift beruhe auf einem Logozentrismus und auf einem mit diesem verbundenen Phonozentrismus. Diesem sei die Dekonstruktion entgegenzusetzen.

Conservatory Garden

The Conservatory Garden is the only formal garden in Central Park, New York City, and located approximately between 104th and 106th street, by Fifth Avenue. Comprising 6 acres (24,000 m2), it takes its name from a conservatory that stood on the site from 1898 to 1934. The park’s head gardener used the glasshouses to harden hardwood cuttings for the park’s plantings. After the conservatory was torn down, the garden was designed by Gilmore D. Clarke, landscape architect for Robert Moses, with planting plans by M. Betty Sprout; constructed and planted by WPA workers, it was opened to the public in 1937.

The Garden is composed of three distinct parts, skillfully restored since the 1980s, and is accessible through the Vanderbilt Gate at Fifth Avenue and 105th Street, a quarter mile (400 m) south of the park’s northeast corner. The Vanderbilt Gate (illustrated right) once gave access to the forecourt of Cornelius Vanderbilt II’s chateau designed by George Browne Post, the grandest of the Fifth Avenue mansions of the Gilded Age, at 58th Street and Fifth Avenue, sharing the Plaza with the Plaza Hotel best cfb uniforms. The wrought iron gates with cast iron and repoussé details, were designed by Post and executed in an iron foundry in Paris.

Below the steps flanked by Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas), the central section of the Conservatory Garden is a symmetrical lawn outlined in clipped yew, with a single central fountain jet at the rear. It is flanked by twin allées of crabapples and backed by a curved wisteria pergola against the steep natural slope, that is dominated at its skyline by a giant American Sycamore. Otherwise there is no flower color: instead, on any fine Saturday afternoon in June, it is the scene of photography sessions for colorful wedding parties, for which limousines pull up in rows on Fifth Avenue

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To the left on the south side, is the garden of mixed herbaceous borders in wide concentric bands around The Secret Garden water lily pool, dedicated in 1936 to the memory of Frances Hodgson Burnett, with sculpture by Bessie Potter Vonnoh. Some large shrubs, like tree lilac, magnolias, buddleias and Cornus alba ‘elegantissima’ provide vertical structure and offer light shade to offset the sunny locations, planted by Lynden Miller with a wide range of hardy perennials and decorative grasses, intermixed with annuals planted to seem naturalized. This garden has seasonal features to draw visitors from April through October.

To the right of the central formal plat is a garden also in concentric circles, round the Untermyer Fountain, which was donated by the family of Samuel Untermyer in 1947. The bronze figures, Three Dancing Maidens by Walter Schott (1861-1938), were executed in Germany about 1910 and formed a fountain at Untermyer’s estate “Greystone” in Yonkers, New York.

This section of the Conservatory Garden has two dramatic seasons of massed display, of tulips in the spring and Korean chrysanthemums in the fall. Beds of santolina clipped in knotted designs with contrasting bronze-leaved bedding begonias surround the fountain, and four rose arbor gates are planted with reblooming ‘Silver Moon’ and ‘Betty Prior’ roses.

After the Second World War the garden had become neglected, and by the 1970s a wasteland. It was restored and partially replanted under the direction of horticulturist and urban landscape designer Lynden Miller, to reopen in June 1987. The overgrown, top-heavy crabapples were freed of watershoots and pruned up to a higher scaffold for better form. The high-style mixed planting was the first to bring estate garden style to urban parks, part of the general renewal of Central Park under Elizabeth Barlow Rogers of the Central Park Conservancy.

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