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Lafayette Escadrille

The Lafayette Escadrille (French: Escadrille de Lafayette) was an escadrille of the French Air Service, the Aéronautique Militaire, during World War I composed largely of American volunteer pilots flying fighters. It was named in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette, hero of the American and French revolutions.

Dr. Edmund L. Gros, a founder of the American Hospital of Paris and organizer of the American Ambulance Field Service, and Norman Prince, an American expatriate already flying for France, led the efforts to persuade the French government of the value of a volunteer American air unit fighting for France. The aim was to have their efforts recognized by the American public and thus, it was hoped, the resulting publicity would rouse interest in abandoning neutrality and joining the fight. Authorized by the French Air Department on March 21, 1916, the Escadrille Américaine (Escadrille N.124) was deployed on April 20 in Luxeuil-les-Bains, France.

Not all American pilots were in Lafayette Escadrille; other American pilots fought for France as part of the Lafayette Flying Corps.

The squadron was then moved closer to the front to Bar-le-Duc wholesale lace socks. A German objection filed with the U.S. government, over the actions of a supposed neutral nation, led to the name change to Lafayette Escadrille in December 1916, as the original name implied that the U.S. was allied to France rather than neutral.

The unit’s aircraft, mechanics, and uniforms were French, as was the commander, Captain Georges Thénault. Five French pilots were also on the roster, serving at various times. Raoul Lufbery, a French-born American citizen, became the squadron’s first, and ultimately their highest scoring flying ace with 16 confirmed victories before the pilots of the squadron were inducted into the U.S. Air Service.

Two unofficial members of the Escadrille Américaine, the lion cubs named Whiskey and Soda, provided countless moments of relief from battle stress to fliers.

The first major action seen by the squadron was 13 May 1916 at the Battle of Verdun and five days later, Kiffin Rockwell recorded the unit’s first aerial victory. On 23 June, the Escadrille suffered its first fatality when Victor Chapman was shot down over Douaumont. The unit was posted to the front until September 1916, when the unit was moved back to Luxeuil-les-Bains in 7 Army area. On 23 September, Rockwell was killed when his Nieuport was downed by the gunner in a German Albatross observation plane and in October, Norman Prince was shot down during air battle. The squadron, flying the Nieuport 11 scout, suffered heavy losses, but its core group of 38 was rapidly replenished by other Americans arriving from overseas. So many volunteered that the Lafayette Flying Corps was formed and many Americans thereafter serving with other French air units such as Michigan’s Fred Zinn, who was a pioneer of aerial photography, fought as part of the French Foreign Legion and later the French Aéronautique militaire. Altogether, 265 American volunteers served in the Corps.

On 8 February 1918, the squadron was disbanded and 12 of its American members inducted into the U.S

Real Madrid Club de Fútbol Home CHICHARITO 14 Jerseys

Real Madrid Club de Fútbol Home CHICHARITO 14 Jerseys



. Air Service as members of the 103rd Aero Squadron. For a brief period it retained its French aircraft and mechanics. Most of its veteran members were set to work training newly arrived American pilots. The 103rd was credited with a further 45 kills before the Armistice went into effect on 11 November. The French Escadrille SPA.124, also known as the Jeanne d’Arc Escadrille, continued Lafayette Escadrille’s traditions in the Service Aéronautique.

Nine pilots died in the Lafayette Escadrille while others perished after leaving the unit. More sustained non-fatal injuries. The planes flown were flimsy, and not as safe as those of later years. Engines and other parts failed, and machine-guns often jammed when they were needed. One man asked to be moved back to his infantry unit, where “he could be safe.” The first pilot to be killed in action was Victor Chapman. Edmond Genet, became the first American casualty of World War I following the U.S. entry into the war. Other Americans had died previous to the U.S. declaration of war, but since Genet had been active in the Escadrille since before the U top ten water bottles.S. entry into the war, his death only a few days after the U.S. declaration of war made him the first official U.S. casualty.

There is some confusion between pilots who were a part of the Lafayette Escadrille or the Lafayette Flying Corps, especially in the film Flyboys. These five French officers and 38 American pilots (also known as “The Valiant 38”) were part of the Lafayette Escadrille.

A † symbol indicates that the individual was killed in action, including those who subsequently entered the Air Service, or died of wounds received.

The story of the Lafayette Escadrille has been depicted in three feature films:

The Lafayette Escadrille also appears in “Attack of the Hawkmen”, an episode of The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles in which Indy is temporarily assigned to the group as an aerial reconnaissance photographer.

The exploits of the Lafayette Escadrille are also captured in several works of historical fiction including: Falcons of France by Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall (1929) and To the Last Man by Jeffrey Shaara .

In the mid-1920s, France recruited some 10 former pilots of the Lafayette Escadrille for service in the French Army of Africa, aiming to forestall American public and diplomatic support for the Rif tribes rebelling against French and Spanish colonial rule. The pilots were inducted into the French Foreign Legion in July 1925, where they formed the Chérif Squadron. Public protests in the United States led to the squadron’s dissolution in 1925.

John Garstang

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John Burges Eustace Garstang (Blackburn, 5 mai 1876-Beyrouth, 12 septembre 1956) est un archéologue waterproof 4s case, égyptologue et orientaliste britannique.

Il étudie les mathématiques à Oxford tout en menant des fouilles sur des sites romains de Grande-Bretagne. Il part en Égypte en 1900 et fouille à Méroé, en Nubie (1909-1914).

Lecteur d’égyptologie à l’Université de Liverpool puis professeur d’archéologie (1907-1941), il inaugure en 1907 les fouilles de l’université à Mersin en Anatolie qu’il poursuivra pendant une quarantaine d’années avec Seton Lloyd pour assistant.

Avec Georges Contenau et Arthur Ernest Cowley, il établit les premiers éléments complets sur la civilisation hittite. Directeur de la British School of Archaeology de Jérusalem, il devient en 1920 responsable du Département des antiquités de la Palestine (1920-1926). Il organise la collaboration entre Britanniques, Français et Américains au Proche-Orient et établit l’inventaire, le relevé et la documentation des monuments anciens reusable glass, assurant leur protection. Il crée en outre à Jérusalem le musée des Antiquités de Palestine.

Après une camapgne à Ascalon (1920-1921), il ouvre des sondages sur les sites de Ai et de Tell el-Quedah (1930) et reprend les fouilles de Jéricho qu’il dirige jusqu’en 1936.

Il est élu en 1947 membre correspondant de l’Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres wholesale lace socks.


Die Guayabera [guajabeɾa] ist ein Leinenhemd, das in Mittelamerika, der Karibik und im Norden Südamerikas getragen wird. Das Hemd wird sowohl von der Landbevölkerung verwendet, aber es gilt in diesen heißen Regionen auch als korrekte Businessbekleidung (statt Anzug und Krawatte).

Das leicht faltige Hemd besitzt an der Vorderseite vier aufgesetzte Hemdtaschen und wird nicht in die Hose gesteckt. In der Geschäftswelt wird die Guayabera ausschließlich in der Farbe weiß (oder leicht beige) getragen, inzwischen gibt es aber auch modische bunte Guayaberas what is the best way to tenderize a steak. Die genaue Herkunft ist nicht mehr ganz nachzuvollziehen sweden football shirt, man vermutet Mexiko oder Kuba als Ursprungsland der Guayabera.

Bekannte Träger von Guayaberas sind und waren zum Beispiel Ernest Hemingway und Gabriel Garcia Marquez aber auch Raúl Castro oder Juan Carlos von Spanien wholesale lace socks.

In Kuba wurde die Guayabera im Oktober 2010 zum offiziellen Bekleidungsstück für staatliche und diplomatische Anlässe erklärt. Männer müssen dabei die klassische Version in weiß tragen, Frauen dürfen Form und Farbe variieren.

Wunnumin Lake First Nation

Wunnumin Lake First Nation (Oji-Cree language: ᐊᐧᓇᒪᐣᓵᑲᐦᐃᑲᓃᕽ (Wanaman-zaaga’iganiing, “At Wunnumin Lake”); unpointed: ᐊᐧᓇᒪᐣᓴᑲᐃᑲᓂᐠ) is an Oji-Cree First Nation band government who inhabit 360 km northeast of Sioux Lookout in Ontario, Canada. Its registered population in January 2007 was 565.

Wunnumin Lake First Nation can be accessed primarily through air transportation; however wholesale lace socks, during the winter season, one can also travel to this community using the winter roads, The White Highway. It consists of two reserves runners water bottle holder, their main reserve Wunnumin 1 and the nearby Wunnumin 2.

Wunnumin Lake is policed by the Nishnawbe-Aski Police Service, an Aboriginal-based service.

Wunnumin Lake is called Wanaman-zaaga’igan meaning “Vermillion Lake”, in reference to the vermillion-coloured clay about the lake. Legend says that Wiisagejaak (the “Crane manidoo”) used to hunt for food, found “Big Beaver” that lived on the Pipestone River and chased “Big Beaver” and its baby beaver to this area. When Wiisagejaak caught up with “Big Beaver” and its baby beaver, he killed the baby beaver and put it aside in this particular area with foliage; as the baby beaver laid there in this foliage, it bled from its wound. The blood from the baby beaver’s wound seeped into the ground, staining the clay to this colour.

Residents of Wunnumin Lake originated from Big Beaver House, Ontario. After a large forest fire, the community at Big Beaver House relocated to two separate location, of which one was Wunnumin Lake. During 1929–1930 the leaders of Wunnumin Lake First Nation were summoned to Big Trout Lake to participate in the signing of the adhesion to Treaty 9. Its current government obtained their Reserve status on March 2, 1976.

The current[when?] Chief is Rod Winnepetonga, and the Deputy Chief is Luke Mckay. Gordon McKoop, Simon Winnepetonga and Zeb Sturgeon Zack Mamakwaserve as Band Councillor. Wunnumin Lake First Nation is affiliated with Shibogama First Nations Council.

Wunnumin Lake First Nation have two reserves: a 5 silver football jersey,855.1 hectares (14,468 acres) Wunnumin 1 Reserve and a 3,794.4 hectares (9,376 acres) Wunnumin 2 Reserve.

The departments and programs offered by Wunnumin Lake First Nation are: