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Hwarang

Hwarang, also known as Flowering Knights, were an elite group of male youth in Silla, an ancient Korean kingdom that lasted until the 10th century. There were educational institutions as well as social clubs where members gathered for all aspects of study, originally for arts and culture as well as religious teachings stemming mainly from Buddhism. Chinese sources referred only to the physical beauty of the “Flower Youths”. Originally, the hwarang were known for their use of make-up and cosmetic decorations and accessories. The history of the hwarang was not widely known until after the liberation of 1945, after which the hwarang became elevated to a symbolic importance.

The Hwarang were also referred to as Hyangdo (fragrant ones or incense men), the word hwarang and its colloquial derivatives being used for everything from playboy to shaman or husband of a female shaman. The word remained in common use until the 12th century but with more derogatory connotations.

Information on the Hwarang are mainly found in the histories Samguk Sagi (1145) and Samguk Yusa (ca. 1285), and the partially extant Haedong Goseungjeon (1215), a compilation of biographies of famous monks of the Three Kingdoms.

All three of these works cite primary sources no longer extant, including: 1) a memorial stele to Nallang (presumably a Hwarang based upon the suffix nang) by the 9th–10th century Silla scholar Choe Chiwon; 2) an early Tang account of Silla titled the Xinluo guoji by the Tang official Ling Hucheng; and 3) Hwarang Segi (화랑세기, 花郞世記, Chronicle of the Hwarang) by Kim Daemun, compiled in the early 8th century. In the late 1980s, an alleged Hwarang Segi manuscript was discovered in Gimhae, South Korea, which a scholar Richard McBride regards as a forgery.

According to the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, two bands of females called Wonhwa (원화, 源花, “original flowers”) preceded the Hwarang. The precise nature and activities of the Wonhwa are also unclear, with some scholars positing they may have actually been court beauties or courtesans. However, considering that they were trained in ethics, this may be a later patriarchal reading into the Wonhwa. Women played a much more prominent social role in pre-Joseon dynasty Korea, especially in Silla, which had three reigning queens in its history.

Both sources record that during the reign of King Jinheung, groups of beautiful girls were chosen and taught filial and fraternal piety, loyalty, and sincerity (no firm date is given for this, and some scholars express doubt this even occurred during Jinheung‘s reign) wool fluff remover. However, the leaders of the two bands of Wonhwa, Nammo 南毛 and Junjeong 俊貞, grew jealous of one another. When Junjeong murdered her rival the Wonhwa were disbanded.

It should be noted that this origin story is most likely based on myth and legend, as the term wonhwa is composed of won 源; literally source, and undoubtedly refers to the founders of the sect, while hwa 花; literally flower, is a euphemism for someone who has spent a great deal of time or money in the pursuit of something, i.e. a devotee. In the case of the wonhwa, devotion to philosophy and the arts. Furthermore, while the names nammo and junjeong could have been appellations adopted by these two ladies for use in court, one cannot overlook the obvious descriptions they portray. Nammo hints at one who is careless yet lucky, or perhaps someone who is innately insightful and therefore lackadaisical about further erudition. Junjeung clearly indicates a person who is talented and virtuous, despite the fact that she was the one who succumbed to homicidal tendencies. It would be logical to assume that if someone had to work hard, maybe even struggle with attaining certain goals, that envy might consume them if their counterpart, especially if viewed more as a rival, seemed to reach the same objectives with substantially less effort.

At some point thereafter, according to the Samguk Yusa, the Silla king, “concerned about the strengthening of the country … again issued a decree and chose boys from good families who were of good morals and renamed them hwarang.” The actual word used in this chronicle is hwanang (花娘), meaning “flower girls”. This suggests that the Hwarang were not originally military in character, as the Wonhwa were not soldiers. The youths who were chosen by the Silla Kingdom became the knights and warriors for the Silla Dynasty within the age of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. A close relationship did exist between the Hwarang and Buddhism because Buddhism was accepted as a state religion by the royalty and aristocrats within the Silla Kingdom. The Buddhist monks were often mentors for the Hwarang in both physical and spiritual ways. The Hwarang would seek the teachings of these Buddhist monks because they knew that the martial arts practiced by these Buddhist monks were a source through which they could strengthen themselves for greater success in the future and for the benefit of the Silla Kingdom. The monks would train themselves in physical fitness exercises through self-defense techniques, countering the weakening effects of long-term meditation and enabling them to protect themselves from bandits and robbers who tried to steal the donations and charities that were collected by the monks on their pilgrimages. Both the Buddhist monks and the Hwarang would go on journeys to famous mountains to heighten their training and would seek encounters with supernatural beings for protection and the success of the Silla Kingdom. Won Gwang Beop Sa (圓光法士) was a Buddhist monk who was asked by the Hwarang to teach them ways to develop ambition, bravery, and honor, in order to protect the Silla Kingdom from the other kingdoms inhabiting the peninsula. Won Gwang trained these youths in three areas 1.) Self-defense capabilities 2.) Self-confidence 3.) Self-control

Won Gwang taught the youths of the Hwarang to become warriors who could defend their beliefs with martial arts, to be confident in their actions, and to control themselves and their surroundings. Won Gwang gave to these Hwarang, martial arts techniques that combined the secret Buddhist monk’s physical exercises, along with Taek Kyeon, the art of foot fighting that existed at that time (also known as: gwonbeop). Won Gwang also proposed 5 principles or guidelines that were later called the Five Precepts for Secular Life {Se Sok O Gye; 세속오계; 世俗五戒} which became a list of ethics that the Hwarang could embrace (this is why he is commonly known as Beop Sa or “lawgiver”):
1.) Show allegiance to one’s sovereign goalie gloves for sale. {sa·gun·i·chung; 사군이충; 事君以忠}
2.) Treat one’s parents with respect and devotion. {sa·chin·i·hyo; 사친이효; 事親以孝}
3.) Exhibit trust and sincerity amongst friends. {gyo·u·i·sin; 교우이신; 交友以信}
4.) Never retreat in battle. {im·jeon·mu·toe; 임전무퇴; 臨戰無退}
5.) Exercise discretion when taking a life. {sal·saeng·yu·taek; 살생유택; 殺生有擇}

These commandments and teachings of Won Gwang were followed by the Hwarang to protect the Silla Kingdom from rivaling kingdoms and helped unify the nation of Ancient Korea until the fall of the Silla Kingdom.

In 520, King Beopheung had instituted Sino-Korean style reforms and formalized the golpum (bone rank) system. In 527, Silla formally adopted Buddhism as a state religion. The establishment of Hwarang took place in the context of tightening central state control, a complement to the golpum system and a symbol of harmony and compromise between the king and the aristocracy.

With the consolidation and expansion of Silla and intensification of military rivalries among the Three Kingdoms in the 6th century, the Silla court took a more active interest in the Hwarang. Hwarang groups were usually led by a youth of aristocratic standing, and the state appointed a high-ranking official to oversee the organization cheap bpa free water bottles.

The Hwarang in the later 6th and 7th centuries trained in horsemanship, swordsmanship, archery, javelin and stone throwing, polo, and ladder-climbing. By the seventh century the organization had grown greatly in prestige and numbered several hundred bands.

The Samguk Sagi, compiled by the general and official Kim Busik, emphasizes the military exploits of certain Hwarang, while the Samguk Yusa emphasizes the group’s Buddhist activities. The biographies section of the Samguk Sagi describes young Hwarang who distinguished themselves in the struggles against the Gaya confederacy and later Baekje and Goguryeo. According to the Hwarang Segi, as cited in the Samguk Sagi and Haedong Goseungjeon, “…able ministers and loyal subjects are chosen from them, and good generals and brave soldiers are born therefrom.”

The Hwarang were greatly influenced by Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist ideals. A Chinese official recorded, “They [Silla] choose fair sons from noble families and deck them out with cosmetics and fine clothes and call them Hwarang. The people all revere and serve them.”

While the Hwarang are viewed by some historians as fighting bands which degenerated into effeminate dilettantes, others consider that they were a religious cult which later evolved into “dance boys”, the title then being inherited by a lower class of itinerant mujari, or “Korean gypsies”, known for male prostitution or homosexuality and who replaced a role previously taken by women.

Two youths, Gwisan (귀산,貴山) and Chwihang (취항, 取項), approached the Silla monk Won Gwang (원광, 圓光) seeking spiritual guidance and teaching, saying, “We are ignorant and without knowledge. Please give us a maxim which will serve to instruct us for the rest of our lives.”

Won Gwang, who had gained fame for his period of study in Sui China, replied by composing the Five Commandments for Secular Life (Se Sok O Gye; 세속 오계; 世俗五戒). These have since been attributed as a guiding ethos for the Hwarang:

The Samguk Yusa also records that Hwarang members learned the Five Cardinal Confucian Virtues, the Six Arts, the Three Scholarly Occupations, and the Six Ways of Government Service (五常六藝 三師六正) thermos bottle price.

Following the fall of Silla, the term hwarang survived and changed in meaning again. In Choe Sejin (최세진)’s 1527 book Hunmong jahoe (훈몽자회), the term hwarang is even referred to as a male prostitute. Today, Hwarang is often used in the names of various schools, organizations and companies.

Bernardo Echaluce Jáuregui

Nació en Villarreal (Guipúzcoa) en 1830 e ingresó en el Real Colegio de Artillería en 1844. Al término de sus estudios fue destinado a Trubia y luego fue comisionado para estudiar Ciencias Naturales en París, y más tarde por Europa para visitar establecimientos industriales y militares. Una vez finalizadas estas comisiones regresó a su anterior destino y fue designado para organizar la artillería y municiones de la isla de Mallorca.

Desarrolló un trabajo de colaboración con Elorza en la fábrica de Trubia y viajó de nuevo al extranjero para estudiar el armamento portátil de las naciones extranjeras. En Inglaterra visitó establecimientos fabriles con objeto de elegir la maquinaria más conveniente para la modernización para la fábrica de Oviedo y en Francia estudió la fabricación de corazas.

La aparición del rayado en las piezas y el buen resultado de las experiencias realizadas en el país vecino le llevaron a implantarlo en España y el resultado es la aparición de este sistema en la Guerra de África. Inventó una espoleta de percusión que fue declarada reglamentaria y proyectó diversas armas portátiles wool fluff remover. Participó en la guerra carlista como teniente coronel y, ya en la paz, fue comisionado para la elección del arma portátil más conveniente para el ejército. Como general y segundo cabo de la Capitanía General de Filipinas asistió a las operaciones en Mindanao con gran éxito. Falleció en 1911. (Memorial de Artillería, serie V, tomo XII lemon squeeze party, 1911).

Phaswane Mpe

Phaswane Mpe (Polokwane, Sudafrica, 10 settembre 1970 – Johannesburg cheap football jerseys, 12 dicembre 2004) è stato un romanziere e poeta sudafricano. Ha studiato presso l’Università di Witwatersrand, dove è stato docente di letteratura africana. Il suo romanzo d’esordio, Welcome to Our Hillbrow, è stato pubblicato nel 2001.

Mpe nacque nella città di Polokwane, nel Sudafrica nordorientale. All’età di 19 anni si trasefrì a Johannesburg per frequentare l’università.

Non avendo grandi disponibilità economiche fu costretto a vivere nel quartiere di Hillbrow, dove successivamente scrisse il suo primo romanzo. Welcome To Our Hillbrow tratta i cambiamenti della vita nelle città del Sudafrica nel decennio successivo al crollo dell’apartheid ad opera di Nelson Mandela e Frederik Willem de Klerk. Lungi dal godere della libertà consentita dalla democrazia, il libro descrive i nativi sudafricani neri di fronte alle nuove sfide della povertà t shirt soccer designs, la disoccupazione, e l’HIV / AIDS.

Le uniche persone di colore che hanno ottenuto dei benefici dall’apartheid, secondo Mpe, sono stati gli immigrati più istruiti provenienti da altre parti dell’Africa. La xenofobia nei confronti di questi immigrati neri è un altro tema centrale del romanzo, era molto diffusa in città l’idea che fossero queste persone i responsabili della diffusione del virus HIV in Sudafrica.

HIV e AIDS sono temi comuni nel suo lavoro, fatto non sorprendente considerando la grande diffusione della malattia in Sud Africa, e prima della sua morte egli ha intrapreso gli studi di dottorato sulla sessualità nella letteratura post-apartheid del Sudafrica.

Ha partecipato nel 2003 al Crossing Border Festival a L’Aia game football jerseys, Paesi Bassi con altri autori sudafricani wool fluff remover, tra cui Ivan Vladislavic, Lesego Rampolokeng, Stacy Hardy, K. Sello Duiker, e Nadine Botha.

Mpe è morto improvvisamente a 34 anni a causa di una malattia sconosciuta (quasi certamente correlata all’HIV), quando stava per iniziare la formazione come guaritore tradizionale.

Côme de Maïouma

Côme de Maïouma est un évêque et hymnographe orthodoxe du VIIIe siècle. Il est né à Damas vers 675 et mort à Maïouma vers 760.

Il est aussi appelé Cosmas de Maïouma, ou Cosmas de Jérusalem, ou Cosmas le Mélode water glass bottles wholesale, ou encore Cosmas l’Hymnographe.

Fête le 14 octobre

Orphelin de père et de mère, Côme (en grec, Κοσμάς) fut adopté (à la fin du VIIe siècle ou au début du VIIIe) par un riche notable chrétien de Damas, Serge, le père du futur saint Jean Damascène.

L’instruction des deux “frères” fut confiée à un moine précepteur, Côme de Sicile. Ce dernier avait été enlevé par des pirates musulmans, et s’en était lamenté auprès de Serge,se plaignant d’avoir beaucoup étudié pour rien et d’être un esclave inutile wool fluff remover. Serge le racheta pour en faire l’éducateur de ses deux fils. Côme (de Maïouma) et Jean étudièrent la grammaire, la philosophie eco stainless steel water bottle, la musique, l’astronomie et la géométrie.

Ils devinrent, vers 726, moines à la laure de Saint-Sabas à Jérusalem.

Côme fut élu évêque de Maïouma en Palestine (région de Gaza). Il mourut dans cette ville et fut rapidement canonisé.

Cosmas composa de nombreux hymnes (quatorze “canons” et des “triodes”) pour la plupart des grandes fêtes de l’année liturgique, où se présente, dans une langue accessible à tous, le contenu dogmatique de la fête.

Sa composition la plus connue est le “Toi plus vénérable que les chérubins”, chantée à la 9e ode du canon des matines.